this site is a co-production of Maarten van der Heijden and Bert Roest. ©

 

 

Caesarius de Spira (d. 1229)

Caesarius Magati (Cesare Magati/Liberatus a Scandiano, 1579-1647)

Cajetanus Maria Bergomensis (Gaetano Maria da Bergamo/Migliorini, 1672-1753)

Cajetanus Martinellus (Gaetano Martinelli, d. after 1795)

Caldes (fl. 1446)

Camilla Varani, see: Battista Varani

Camilla Pio (1440-1504)

Candidus Brugnoli (Candido Brugnoli da Sarnico, d. 1677)

Candidus Ranzo (Giovanni Agostino Ranzo, 28 August 1456-1515)

Caritas Pirckheimer (1467-1532)

Carolus Abbatisvillensis (Charles d’Abbéville, fl. 17th cent.)

Carolus Arembergensis (Karl von Aremberg, 1596-1669)

Carolus Augustinus Berardi (Carlos-Agostino Berardi, fl. later 18th cent.)

Carolus Belleo da Ragusa (d. 1580)

Carolus Boulanger (Charles Boulanger, fl. first half 17th cent.)

Carolus de Mena (Carlos de Mena, d. 1633)

Carolus (Carlo) de Sezze (Carlo Da Sezze, 1613-1670)

Carolus de Moralo (Carlos del Moral, d. 1731)

Carolus Franciscus Varesius

Carolus Horatius Castorano (Carlo Horatii Castorano, 1673-1750)

Carolus Josephus Rosales (Carlos José Rosales, fl. first half 18th cent.)

Carolus Le Boulanger, see: Carolus Boulanger

Carolus Lodoli (Carlo Lodoli, d. 1761)

Carolus Maria Angeletti (18th cent.)

Carolus Maria Perusinus, see: Carolus Maria Angeletti

Carolus Paderbornensis>>dates?, See: Klaus Baulmann, ‘Hic mons est Domini. Dieser Berg gehört dem Herrn. Der Kapuziner Carolus aus Paderborn als Poet von Kloster Brunnen’, in: Verum, pulchrum et bonum. Miscellanea di studi offerti a Servus Gieben in occasione del suo 80o compleanno, ed. Yoannes Teklemariam (Rome: Ed. Collegio San Lorenzo da Brindisi, Istituto Storico dei Cappuccini, 2006), 769-781.

Carolus Sanchez (Carlos Sánchez, fl. first half 18th cent.)

Carolus Verri Cremonensis (Carlo Verri da Cremona, fl. 17th cent.)

Carus Aretinus>>

Casimir Casani de Marsala (1676-1762)

Casimir de Toulouse (c. 1633-1674)

Caspar Alenda (Casparo Alenada, d. 1642)

Caspar Casparini (Gasparo Gasparini, 1623-1705)

Caspar de Fuente (Gaspar de la Fuente, ca. 1596-ca. 1665)

Caspar de Leon, see: Gaspar de Léon under letter G

Caspar de la Tenre, see: Gaspar de le Tenre under letter G

Caspar de Lusiterna (Gaspar de Lisboa, fl. ca. 1600)

Caspar de Montesanto (Gasparo da Montesanto; Casparo Cantarini, 1731-1796)

Caspar de Sancto Michaelo (Gaspar de Sâo Miguel, fl. first half 17th cent.)

Caspar de Sancto Spirito (Gaspar del Espíritu Santo, fl. c. 1720)

Caspar de Uceda (fl. second half 16th century)

Caspar de Vergara (Gaspar de Vergara, fl. early 17th cent.)

Caspar de Vigachoaga (Gaspar de Vigachoaga, fl. early 17th cent.)

Caspar de Viana (Gasparo de Viana, d. after 1677)

Caspar Gasparini, see: Caspar Casparini

Caspar Gastant, see: Gaspard Gastant under letter G

Caspar Liebler, see: Kaspar Liebler under letter K

Caspar Malandrinus de Noto (Gaspare Malandrino da Noto, d. 1690)

Caspar Meckenloer (Kaspar Meckenlör, fl. c. 1530)

Caspar Najera (Gaspar Nájera, fl. late 16th cent.)

Caspar Sagar (first half 16th cent?)

Caspar Schatzgeyer (d. 1527)

Caspar Waler (d. 1502)

Cassianus Beligatti (Cassiano Beligatti da Macerata, 1708-1785)

Cassianus de Dijon (Cassian de Dijon, fl. mid 17th cent.)

Cassianus Korczynski (Kasjan Korczynski, d. 1784)

Castro, José de San Pedro de Alcántara (18th century)

Catharina de Bologna (1413-1463), sancta

Cayetano de Madrid (second half 18th century)

>>? Cecilio Maria da Costaserina Corttinovis OFMCap>> dates!: Fra Cecilio Maria da Costaserina Cortinovis, Diario-Lettere. Note Spirituali, ed. Costanzo Cargnoni, Miscellanea di Testi Cappuccini, 2 (Rome, 2004).

Celestinus Bergomensis (Celestino da Bergamo, 1568-1635)

Celestinus de Monte Marsani (Célestin de Mont-de-Marsan, d. 1650)

Celestinus de Oddis (fl. c. 1600)

Celestinus de Soissons (Célestin de Soissons, fl. 17th cent.)

Celsus Zanus (fl. 17th cent.)

Chatarinus de Veneto († after 1378)

Cherubinus de Aurelia (Chérubin d'Orléans d. 1697)

Cherubinus de Maurienne (Chérubin de Maurienne/Alexandre Fournier, 1566-1610)

Cherubinus de Spoleto d. 1484

Cherubinus de Udine (Cherubino d’Udine, fl. early 17th cent.)

Cherubinus Rijn (1570-1623)

Cherubinus Senensis (Cherubino da Siena, fl. later fifteenth cent.)

Chrestien Leclercq, see: Christanus Clericus.

Christianus Borgsleben

Christianus Clericus (Chrestien Leclercq, 1641-after 1700)

Christianus de Hiddestorf (Christian von Hiddesdorf)

Christianus de Honnef (Christianus von Honnef, fl. c. 1500)

Christianus de Kientzheim (Christian von Kientzheim, 1718 - after 1795)

Christianus de Northusen (Christian von Northausen, 15th cent.)

Christianus Schneider (1742-1824)

Christianus Seuringhausen (f. mid 17th cent.)

Christobaldus de Higuera (Cristóbal de Higuera/de la Higuera, fl. c. 1700)

Christobaldus Delgadillo (Cristóbal Delgadillo, fl. ca. 1650)

Christobaldus de Rojas: See Christophorus de Rojas y Spinola

Christobaldus de Sancto Antonio (Cristóbal de San Antonio o Diego Mieses, d. 1558)

Christobaldus de Sancto Josepho Gallo (Cristóbal de San José Gallo, fl. early 18th cent.)

Christobaldus Lopez de Vera (Cristóbal López de Vera, fl. c. 1750)

Christobaldus Martinez (Cristóbal Martínez de la Puerta, d. 1623)

Christobaldus Moreno (Cristóbal Moreno, fl. c. 1600)

Christobaldus Ortega (Cristóbal Ortega, fl. c. 1650)

Christobaldus Palomo (Cristóbal Palomo, fl. c. 1765)

Christobaldus Ramirez (Cristobál Ramírez, fl. late 17th cent.)

Christobaldus Rosellus (Cristobal Rosel, fl. 18th cent.)

Christopher Davenport (fl. first half 17th cent.)

Christophorus de Cheffontaines (Christophe de Cheffontaines, d. 1595)

Christophorus de Lisbona (Cristóvão de Lisboa, 1583-1652)

Christophorus de Rojas y Spinola (Cristobal de Rojas y Spinola, 1626-1695)

Christophorus de Romandiola (Cristoforo di Romagna/ de Cahors, ca. 1172-1272, Cahors) b. in 1905

Christophorus de Sancta Clara/Christopher of St. Clare, see: Galterus Colemannus (letter G)

Christophorus de Varisio (Cristoforo da Varese, fl. 1465)

Christophorus de Verrucchio (d. 1620)

Christophorus Fleming (1599–1631)

Christophorus Leutbrewer (fl. first half 17th cent.)

Christophorus Numai de Forli (d. 1528)

Christopher Ruiz (c. 1490 - 1550)

Chrysologus de Gy (d. 1808)

Chrysostomos de Gaufridy (d. 1670)

Chrysostomos de Guglionesi (d. 1621)

Ciprianus/Cipriano, see: Cyprianus

Ciraco d’Ancona?>>Ciraco d’Ancona e il suo tempo fra Oriente e Occidente. Viaggi, commerci e avventure fra sponde adriatiche, Egeo e Terra Santa (Ancona, 2000).

Cirillus, see: Cyrillus

Clara Assisiensis (1193-1253), sancta

Clara Bugni (Chiara Bugni, fl. 15th cent.)

Clarus Florentinus (Chiaro da Firenze, mid 13th cent.)

Claudius Barrus (Claude Barre, Laude la Barre, Claude de Belmont, 1558-1629)

Claudius Frassen (1620, Péronne - 26, 02, 1711, Paris)

Claudius Vicarius (Claude Vicar, fl. second half 16th cent.)

Claudius-Robertus Hertaldus (Claude-Robert Heurtauld/Claude-Robert Heurtault), see: Seraphinus Parisiensis

Claus Cranc, see: Klaus Cranc

Clemens Bontadosi (Clemente Bontadosi/Bentadosi/Bontadoti/Montedoti, d. 1594)

Clemens de Lorenzo (Clemente Di Lorenzo d. 1631)

Clemens Dolera [Monilianus] (20, 06, 1501, Moneglia - 6, 01, 1568, Rome)

Clemens Kobylina (Klemens Klimak/Klemens Kobylinski, d. 1483)

Clemens Radyma (Klemens Ralmut/Klemens Radyma, d. 1562)

Columbanus de Lucerna (Columbano da Lucerna, fl. late 17th cent.)

Columbanus Gillottus (Colombano Gollotto, d. ca. 1721)

`Columbinus' (fl. ca. 1300)

Concordus de Gernsheim (d. 1772)

Conrad Bebulor (d. ca. 1475)

Conrad Böhmlin (ca. 1380 - 26, 06, 1449)

Conrad Clinge (ca. 1483, Nordhausen (?) - 1556, Erfurt)

Conrad de Bondorf (Konrad von Bonndorf, c. 1430 - 4 January, 1510)

Conradus de Marchia (Konrad von der Mark, d. 1353)

Conrad de Monte Puellarum (1309-1374) not a Franciscan?

Conrad de Offida (1237, Offida - 1306, Bastia (Assisi)), beatus

Conrad de Quervordia

Conrad de Saxonia (Conrad Holtnicker, d. 1279)

Conrad Fünfbrunner (Cünratt Fünffbrunner, d. 1501)

Conrad Grütsch (Gritsch, ca. 1408 - ca. 1475)

Conrad Nater (fl. late fifteenth century)

Conrad Oesterreicher (fl. ca. 1500)

Conrad Pellican (fl. early sixteenth century)

Conrad Spitzer (Conradus/Chunradus de Wienna, d. 1380)

Conrad Steckel

Conrad Ströber (d. 1443)

Constantin Bargellini (Costanzo Bargellini/Costanzo Barzellini, d. 1585)

Constantin de Barbanson (1582-1631)

Constantinus Boccafoci (Constanzo Boccafoci/Torri, 1531-1595)

Constantinus Letins (fl. ca. 1700)

Costantinus Porta (Costanzo Porta, 1529-1601)

Constantinus Steingaden (fl. 18th cent.)

Corneille, see: Cornelius

Corneille Musel/Mussele, see Leonardus de Tornaco (Letter L)

Cornelius Adriaensz. Brouwer (d. 1581)

Cornelius Birag (fl. seventeenth cent.)

Cornelius de Urbino (1524-1603)

Cornelius Donthers (before 1528-1553)

Cornelius Mussus (Cornelio Musso, 1511-1574)

Cornelius Raven van Naarden (Cornelis Raven, d. after 1548)

Cornelius Thielmans

Cosmus de Castelfranco (Padre Cosimo Cappuccino/Paolo Piazza, d. 1620)

Cosmus de Castelfranco (Cosmo Pettenari, 1647-1715)

Cosmus Ramírez (fl. c. 1760)

Costanzo, see: Constantinus

Crabbe, Petrus, OFMObs (1470-1553, Mechelen)

Cratepolius, Petrus (also: Mersius, Merssaeus, Opmersensis) (ca. 1540-1605, Cologne)

Crescentius Grizi (Jesi) (d. 1263)

Crescentius Krisper (d. 1749)

Crispinus de Viterbo (Crispino da Viterbo/Pietro Fioretti), (1668, Viterbo-1750, Rome), sanctus (1982)

Cyprianus de Gamaches (c. 1599-1679) 

Cyprianus Gnesotti (Cipriano Gnesotti, d. 1796)

Cyrillus Alamedo (Cirilo Alamedo y Brea)

  



 

 

 

 

 

Carolus (Carlo) de Sezze (Carlo Da Sezze/Giancarlo Marchioni, 1613-1670), sanctus

OFMRif. Lay friar. Beatified (1882) and Canonised (1959). Born in Sezze on 19 October 1613. Having religious and missionary ambitions from an early age, he was inspired by the life story of two Franciscan lay brothers (Pascal Baylon and Salvador de Horta) to join the Reformed Observant Franciscans in 1635. He never aspired the priesthood, and fulfilled a variety of tasks normally assigned to lay brothers, such as terminary, cook, porter, gardener etc.. He was not always very well equipped for these functions. Hence, while working as a cook, he succeeded in creating a kitchen fire. Yet he obtained a large reputation because of his strict adherence to the Franciscan vow of poverty,and because of his spiritual and mystical prowess. His confessor asked him to write his life story as a penitential exercise, which resulted in the Le grandezze delle misericordie di Dio, and he subsequently wrote a number of additional works, and was approached by highly placed ecclesiastics for spiritual advice. He would even have comforted the dying Pope Clement IX. Carlo died on Epiphany 1670 in the San Francesco a Ripa friary in Rome. Soon his grave became cult site and he was beatified in 1882 by Pope Leo XIII and later, on 12 April 1959, he was canonized by Pope John XXIII.

manuscripts

Esercizi spirituali

Il picolo giardino di rose (2 redactions)

Divote rivelazioni della passione

La vita e conforto dell anima

>> for all these works see Heerincks, 340-344

editions

In the wake of his canonization, most of his works were re-issued in an opera omnia edition:

- San Carlo da Sezze, O.F.M., Opere complete, Volume I: Le grandezze delle misericordie di Dio, Libri I-V, ed. Raimondo Sbardella (Rome, 1963).

- Opere complete, Volume II: Le grandezze delle misericordie di Dio, Libri VI- VII. Grazzie ottenute dal SS. Sacramento, da S. Anna e da S. Salvatore da Horta. Viaggio a Loreto, La Verna, Assisi, Rieti, ed. Raimondo Sbardella (Rome, 1965).

- Opere complete, Volume III: Trattato delle tre vie. Canti spirituali. Novene, ed. Raimondo Sbardella (Rome, 1967).

Yet many of his works can also be accessed in older editions. See for instance:

Trattato delle tre vie, della meditatione e stati della santa contemplatione distinto in tre parti (Rome: Ignatio de Lazzeri, 1654/Rome: Iacomo Fei d’A.F., 1664/Rome: Ottavio Puccinelli, 1742). In any case the 1664 and 1742 editions are accessible via Google Books.

Canti spirituali (Rome: Ignatio de Lazzeri, 1654; Rome: Iacomo Fei d'A.F., 1664). [also in the first two editions of the Trattato]

Settenari sacri o'vero meditationi pie (Rome: Mascandi, 1666).

Essercitio divoto per la novena di nostro Signore o vere nove meditationi (Rome: Mascardi, 1666).

Essercitio divoto per la novena della santissima vergine Maria (Rome: Mascardi, 1666).

Le grandezze delle misericordie di Dio (autobiography). The work received a modern English translation as: St. Charles of Sezze: an autobiography, trans. Leonard Perotti (London: Burns & Oates, 1963).

Camino interno dell'anima sposa dell'humanito Verbo Christo Giesu (...) (Rome: Francesco Moneta, 1664). Available via Google Books.

literature

J. Heerincks, ‘Les écrits du B. Charles de Sezze’, AFH 28 (1935), 324-344; Raphael Brown, The Wounded Heart: St. Charles of Sezze (Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1960; Raimondo Sbardella, ‘S. Carlo da Sezze grande mistico e maestro di spirito’, Frate Francesco 63 (1996), 29-42; Felice Accrocca, “Non mi nascosi mai de nessun povero’. San Carlo da Sezze e la povertà. Con disegni originali di Tommaso Brusca (Sezze: Centro Studi ‘S. Carlo da Sezze’, 1998); Massimiliano Di Pastina, La forza dell’umiltà. Dagli scritti di san Carlo da Sezze (S. Maria degli Angeli-Assisi: Edizioni Porziuncola, 1998); Marco Paggiossi, ‘I manoscritti di s. Carlo da Sezze con­servati nell’Archivio della Postulazione della Provincia Romana OFM’, AFH 93 (2000), 377-468 ; Nicola Gori, ‘La solitudine e il silenzio in san Carlo da Sezze’, Studi Francescani 99 (2002), 253-271 ; M. Paggiossi, ‘Le lettere di s. Carlo da Sezze del ms. S. Carlo 4 dell’Archivio della Postulazione della Provincia Romana ofm’, Frate Francesco n.s. 70/2 (2004), 435-440 ; Luigi Mantuano, Pensare in Dio. Carlo da Sezze. Presentazione di Alvaro Cacciotti, ofm, Collana i testi mistici, 4 (Vatican City: Libreria Editrice, 2005); La mistica parola per parola, ed. Luigi Borriello, Maria R. Del Genio & Tomás Spidlík (Milan: Ancora, 2007), 92.

 

 

 

Camilla Pio (1440-1504)

Tertiary and Poor Clare, founder of a community of Poor Clares at Carpi.

literature

Mariafiamma Fabbri, Camilla Pio, contemplativa in azione (1440-1504) (S. Maria degli Angeli - Assisi, 2001).

For more info see the Franciscan Women Internet Database

 

 

 

Candidus Brugnoli (Candido Brugnoli da Sarnico, d. 1677)

OFMRif. Lector, preacher, and inquisitor in the Bergamo diocese. Born in 1607 at Sarnico, near Bergamo. Joined the Franciscan order in 1625, adopting the name Candido. Studied philosophy and theology and embarked on a career as preacher, lector, guardian, provincial definitor etc.., both in the Bergamo area, and elsewhere (Rome, 1647; Padua, 1648, etc.). In Padua and subsequently in Bergamo, he worked on his Manuale exorcistarum ac parochorum, which was published for the first time in 1651 and had a large success, also thanks to the support of his order superiors, the inquisition and others, until it was finally forbidden by the Congregazione dell'Indice in September 1727. While teaching theology in Bergamo, he worked on various other publications, such as the Il leone vittorioso, which called for a war against the Ottoman Turks, and the Speculum clericorum. Returning to issues already touched upon in his Manuale exorcistarum ac parochorum, he issued in 1668 his two-volume Alexicacon.

editions

Manuale exorcistarum ac parochorum: Hoc est Tractatus de curatione et protectione divina (...) (Bergamo: 1651). Accessible via Google Books; Manuale exorcistarum ac parochorum (...) (Lyon, 1658); Manuale exorcistarum ac parochorum (Venice: Niccolo Pezzana, 1702). Accessible via Archive.org and via the Fondos Digitales of the Universidad de Sevilla [http://fondosdigitales.us.es/fondos/libros/4418/10/manuale-exorcistarum-ac-parochorum/ ]; Manuale exorcistarum ac parochorum: hoc est tractatus de curatione, ac protectione divina: in quo reprobatis erroribus, verus, certus, securus, catholicus, apostolicus & evangelicus eiiciendi daemones (...) traditur (Venice: Niccolo Pezzana, 1714). Accessible via Google Books; etc.

Il leone vittorioso, che insegna à i principi, e vassali cattolici il vero modo d'impetrar da Dio sicura vittoria contra infedeli: preferuar se stessi: ecooperare all'assaltazione della nostra santissima fede (...) (Venice: Per il Baba, 1653).

Speculum clericorum tam saecularium quam regularium. In quo Omnia, quae eorum Mores, Privilegia, Obligationes, Sacramentorum, Sacramentaliumve susceptionem, & administrationem, ac Paenas Canonicas respiciunt, distinctis Resolutionibus iuxta prisca, ac nova Iura Pontificia dilucidè ac methodicè conspiciuntur (Venice: Franciscus Valuasensis, 1663/1664). 1663 edition available via Google Books.

Alexicacon. Hoc est de Maleficiis, ac Morbis Maleficis duobus tomis distributum, quorum alter quatuor de eorum cognitione disput, alter totidem de eorum curatione continet (...) ne dum Exorcistis, ac Medicis necessarium; sed Theologis, Philosophis, Concionatoribus, Confessariis, Parochis, Inquisitoribus, Iudicibus (...) utilissimum (...), 2 Vols. (Venice: Battista Catani, 1668/Venice: Niccolo Pezzana, 1714). Editions available via Google Books.

L'imagine del Re supremo (...) (Venice, 1669).?

literature

D. Calvi, Scena letteraria de gli scrittori bergamaschi, 2 Vols. (Bergamo, 1664) II, 19; B. Vaerini, Gli scrittori di Bergamo o sia notizie storiche, e critiche intorno alla vita, e alle opere de'letterati bergamaschi (...), 2 Vols. (Bergamo: Vincenzo Antoine, 1788) I, 281; F. H. Reusch, Der Index der verbotenen Bücher: ein Beitrag zur Kirchen- und Literaturgeschichte, 2 Vols. (Bonn: Cohen, 1883–1885) II, i, 220; J.J. Sbaralea, Supplementum et castigationes ad scriptores trium Ordinum S. Francisci a Waddingo aliisve descriptos (ed. Rome, 1936) III, 207; M. Petrocchi, Esorcismi e magia nell'Italia del Cinquecento e del Seicento (Naples, 1957), 21, 31-48; Lynn Thorndike, A History of Magic and Experimental Science, 8 Vols. (New York: 1923–1958) VIII, 558-565; Antonio Rotondò, 'BRUGNOLI (Brognolo, Brognoli, Brognolus), Candido', Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani XIV (1972) [http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/candido-brugnoli_(Dizionario-Biografico)/ ]; Ottavia Niccoli, ‘L’esorcista prudente. Il ‘Manuale exorcistarum ac parochorum’ di fra Candido Brugnoli da Sarnico’, in: Il piacere del testo. Saggi e studi per Albano Biondi, ed. Adriano Prosperi et al., Europa delle corti. Centro studi sulle società di antico regime. Biblioteca del Cinquecento, 99, 2 Vols. (Rome: Bulzoni Editori, 2001) I, 193-215.

 

 

 

 

Candidus Ranzo (Giovanni Agostino Ranzo, 28 August 1456-1515)

OFMObs. Born in Vercelli (Piemonte) in a noble family connected with the dukes of Savoye. After studies in the liberal arts, he opted for a religious career, becoming a member of the cathedral chapter of Vercelli (1471). Embarked on studies of canon law at Turin. After finishing his studies, he renounced his chapter benefice in Vercelli and entered the Observant Franciscans in Turin (4 August, 1476), taking the name Candidus. After some time, he as sent out as preacher to Corsica, where he remained for several years and established reputation of personal sanctity and homiletic prowess. Eventually he was called to Varallo, to assist Bernardino da Caimo. He left Varallo in 1509, to go to the San Giorgio Canavese convent in the Turin province. He would have refused the offer of an episcopate, offered to him by his cousin, cardinal Mercurino Gattinara. Candidus died at Valperga (17 September 1515), away from his convent, on his way to hear the confession of an ill person. His corpse eventually was buried in the church of the San Giorgo Canavese convent. His tomb became a pilgrim site. In the course of his life, Candidus produced several works. For the spiritual instruction of the laity, he would have written Lo stato spirituale del mondo, a work in three parts, the first of which dealt with the errors of the world, the second of which dealt with the miserable human condition, and the third of which dealt with the falling standards of religious discipline (did this work survive?). He also produced a devotional work, entitled Salutationi alla gloriosa Vergine Maria Madre d’Iddio e nostra avvocata, consisting of invocations that can be recited before saying Pater Noster and Ave Maria prayers. Together, these invocations provide a spiritual comment on the seven ‘Allegresses’ (joies) of Mary.

editions

Salutationi alla gloriosa Vergine Maria Madre d’Iddio e nostra avvocata, edited with additional prayers in B. Cimarella, ‘Vita del beato Frate Candido Ranzo’, in: Croniche degli Ordini Instituiti dal P.S. Francesco, 4th Part, Vol. 3 (Naples, 1680), 723-749.

literature

Wadding, Annales Minorum XV (Quaracchi, 1933), 559-560 (ad an. 1515, no. 15); Sbaralea, Supplementum I, 199; B. Cimarella, ‘Vita del beato Frate Candido Ranzo’, in: Croniche degli Ordini Instituiti dal P.S. Francesco, 4th Part, Vol. 3 (Naples, 1680), 723-749; H. Corrado, Almae Taurinensis Provinciae (…) Historica et Chronologica Synopsis (Turin, 1856), 117; Martyrologium Franciscanum (Vicenza, 1939), 365-366; DSpir XIII, 96-97.

 

 

 

 

Carolus Abbatisvillensis (Charles d’Abbéville, fl. 17th cent.)

OFMCap

literature

DThCat. II, 2272 

 

 

 

 

Carolus Arembergensis (Karl von Aremberg/Charles Antoine d'Aremberg, 1593-1669)

OFMCap. Son of a German high noble family. He renounced his wealth and inheritance to join the Capuchin order in 1616. Known for his Architectural and landscape designs in the Southern Low Countries. Predominantly known for his Flores Seraphici, a collection of biographical sketches of more than 700 Capuchin friars, based on the Annales Ordinis Minorum Capucinorum of Boverius. The Flores Seraphici contain a large number of full-page engravings designed by Johann Heinrich and Johann Eckard Löffler. Karl/Charles apparently also wrote for his nephew Filips-Frans Duke of Arenberg and Aerschot a family history of the Arenberg family: Marques des grandeurs et splendeurs de la maison souveraine des ducs d'Arenberg (...) (1660).

editions

Flores seraphici ex amoenis Annalium hortis adm: R.P.F. Zachariae Bouerij Ord.: FF. Minorum S. Francisci Capucinorum: definitoris generalis collecti, sivi Icones, vitae et gesta virorum illustrium ... qui ab anno 1525. vsque ad annum 1612 in eodem Ordine, miraculis ac vitae sanctimoniâ claruêre, compendiosè descripta (Cologne: Apud Constantinum Munich, 1642). Accessible via Archive.org and several other digital portals.

Marques des grandeurs et splendeurs de la maison souveraine des ducs d'Arenberg (...) (1660).

Vitae et gesta virorum illustrium, qui in ordine fratrum minorum sancti Francisci capucinorum, ab anno 1525, usquead ad annum 1612 (...) (1694).

literature

Frédegand d’Anvers, Étude sur le Père Charles d’Arenberg, frère mineur Capucin (Paris-Rome: Libr. Saint-François, 1919); Jacques Descheemaeker, La maison d'Arenberg d'après les archives françaises (1969); Servus Gieben, L’Albero Serafico e Carlo de Arenberg, Iconographia Franciscana, 17 (Rome: Istituto storico dei Cappuccini, 2008). Review in Études franciscaines n.s. 3 (2010), 157-160.

 

 

 

 

Carolus Augustinus Berardi (Carlos-Agostino Berardi, fl. later 18th cent.)

OFMCap. Born at Oneglia. Took the habit in the Piemonte province. Lector and preacher. Left an Italian cycle of 100 sermons behind.

editions

Centenario d’orazioni sacre distribuite per ciascun mese dell'anno ed in due tomi divise, 2 Vols. (Lucca, 1782).

literature

A. Teetaert, ‘Berardi’, DHGE VIII, 329.

 

 

 

 

 

Carolus Belleo da Ragusa (Carlo Belleo da Raguza, d. 1580)

OFMConv. Brother of Teodoro Belleo (professor of medicine at Palermo, Bologna and later at Padua). Carlo joined the Conventuals and lived and worked for a while at the San Francesco friary of Ragusa. He taught metaphysics at the Catania university and later philosophy at Padua university. Between January and December 1568, he was for a short while provincial minister. Among other things, he published a Dialogo per la Gerusalemme di Torquato Tasso.

editions

Dialogo per la Gerusalemme di Torquato Tasso?

Subtilissimi et excellentissimi Theodori Bellei Siculi Ragusani in Hippocratis Coi aphorismos commentarius primus (Palermo: Giovanni Matteo Mayda, 1571). Accessible sur Gallica and several other digital portals.

See also: Le opere di Carlo e Teodoro Belleo, ed. Mario Pavone (Ragusa: Centro Studi G.B. Hodierna, 1992).

literature

Francesco Costa, ‘Su una ‘ricostruzione’ biografica del P.M. Carlo Belleo da Raguza OFMConv, metafisico scotista dell’Università di Padova’, Miscellanea Francescana 99 (1999), 670-711.

 

 

 

 

Carolus Boulanger (Charles Boulanger/Le Boullanger/Charles de Paris, fl. first half 17th cent.)

OFMCap. Parisian friar and ascetical author. Not much is known about his life and career, but at least one of his works reached the printing press.

editions

Paraboles>>>.

L’exercice des trois clous d’amour et de douleur (Paris, 1636). [attribution not secure, negated by Ubald d’Alençon]

Traité de l’union de l’amour avec Dieu (Paris, 1641/1646). Not sure whether this work can be ascribed to him.

Les dix solitudes (Paris: Veuve Nicolas Bvon & Denys Thierry, 1645). Work available via Google Books. Dedicated to Henriette de Lorraine, abbess of the Royal Abbey of Soissons. The preface to the work hints at the production of other works. Likewise, a commendatory letter of the Capuchin minister general mentions other works of the author that had appeared already.

La journée de saint Paul>>>>

La conduite du Saint-Esprit>>>>

>>>>

literature

Wadding, Scriptores (ed. Rome, 1906), 61; Sbaralea, Supplementum (ed. Rome, 1908) I, 200; Bernardo di Bologna, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Ordinis Minorum Capuccinorum (Venice, 1747), 58; V. Mills, ‘A bibliography of Franciscan ascetical writers’, The Franciscan Educational Conference/Franciscan Studies 8 (1926), 303; Ubald d’Alençon, ‘La spiritualité franciscaine. Les auteurs. La doctrine’, Études franciscaines 39 (1927), 594-495. DHGE XXX (2010), 1380; Check Dictionnaire de Spiritualité IX, 454-455.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carolus de Mena (Carlos de Mena, d. 1633)

Friar from Valladolid in Yucatán. Guardian of the Mococha friary around the time of his death. According to his fellow friar Diego López de Cogolludo, Carlos would have written a considerable number of sermons and related materials in the loca Yucatán language

manuscrips

Medicina Maya. Mentioned in Butler, 202.

Sermones y opúsculos, en lengua de Yucatán.

literature

Diego Lopéz de Cogolludo, Historia de Yucatán Book X, cap. 20; R.L. Butler, A Check List of Manuscripts in the Edward E. Ayer Collection (Chicago, 1937), 202; A Bio-Bibliography of Franciscan Authors in Colonial Central America, ed. Eleanor B. Adams (Washington D.C.: Academy of American Franciscan History, 1953), 53; Manuel de Castro y Castro, ‘Lenguas indigenas americanas transmitidas por los Franciscanos del siglo XVI’, in: Actas del II Congreso Internacional sobre los Franciscanos en el Nuevo Mundo (siglo XVI) (Madrid: DEIMOS, 1988), 550-551.

 

 

 

 

Carolus de Moralo (Carlos del Moral, d. 1731)

OFM. Theologian in the Castilia province.

editions

Fons illimis theologiae scoticae Marianae e paradiso virgineo latices suos ubertim effundens (...) (Madrid: Tomas Rodriguez Frias, 1730). Accessible via Google Books.

literature

AIA 26 (1926), 201-206; AIA 15 (1955), 355; Isidoro Guerra Lazpiur, Integralis conceptus maternitatis divinae iuxta Carolum del Moral, Bibliotheca mariana moderni aevi. Textus et disquisitiones, 1 (Rome, 1953); Isidoro Guerra Lazpiur, ‘La Virgen santísima, cabeza secundaria del Cuerpo místico de Cristo en la mariología de Carlos del Moral, OFM’, Estudios marianos 18 (1957), 231-258; Isidoro Guerra Lazpiur, ‘El débito de pecado y la redención de la Virgen Inmaculada en la mariología de Carlos del Moral’, Verdad y Vida 15 (1957), 399-443; Manuel de Castro, Bibliografía de las bibliografias franciscanas españolas e hispanoamericanas, Publicaciones de Archivo Ibero-Americano (Madrid: Ed. Cisneros, 1982), 151 (no. 591).

 

 

 

 

Carolus Franciscus Varesius (Carlo Francesco da Varese >>

OFMRif. Friar and provincial minister of the Roman province. Lector, general commissarius and consultant for the inquisition.

editions

Selectiores huius temporis controuersiae dogmaticae fidei symbolo, quo Sancta Romana Ecclesia Substructae Ioannis Scoti doctoris subtilissimi hypothesibus explicate. Invictissimo Poloniae Regi Ioanni Tertio (...) Dicatae (...) (Rome: Paolo Moneta, 1688). Accessible via Google Books.

Promptuarium Scoticum ob oculos exhibens. Quicquid in quatuor sententiarum libris, & quodlibeto doctoris subtilis continetur suos in titulos digestum, atque ordine alphabetico explanatum, opus omnibus cùm philosophis, tùm theologis Scoti doctrine studiosis optandum maximè, & necessarium. Ingenti labore, & studio reuerendissimi P. Caroli Francisci de Varesio Ordinis Minorum (...), 2 Vols. (Venice: Andrea Poleti, 1690). In any case the first volume is accessible via Google Books.

Scotus polemicus, adversus haereses, erroresque tum veteres tum recentiores solidissime spicula aeque ac subtilissima vibrans (Rome, 1694).

 

 

 

 

Carolus Horatius Castorano (Carlo Horatii Castorano/Carolo Orazi da Castorano, 1673-1750)

Friar from Castorano. Missionary in China between 1700 and 1733. He had a long and complex missionary career, and also was involved with confrontations with Jesuit missionary practices. After his return to Italy, he joined the Franciscan community at the Ara Coeli in Rome, and continued to criticize Jesuit missionary practices, and esp. their 'accomodating' Chinese rites. He wrote many letters and several other works, not all of which reached the printing press. Quite a number of them can apparently be found in the Vatican Archivum Secretum.

manuscripts/editions

Carta/litterae. See for instance Sinica Franciscana, VI: Relationes et Epistolas Primorum Fratrum Minorum Italorum in Sinis (Saeculis XVII et XVIII), ed. Georgius Mensaert (Rome, 1961).

Relatio Eorum Quae Pekini Contigerunt in Publicatione Constitutionis Sanctissimi D.N. Clementis Papae XI Die 19 Martii 1715 Super Ritus Sinicos: MS Vatican Archivum Secretum Albini 256.

Dizionario latino-cinese?

Grammatica della lingua cinese?

Observationes in bullam S.D.N. Benedicti 14. pont. max. qua ritus Sinici iterum damnantur (1742). Apparently accessible via Google Books.

Brevissima notizia o Relazione di varj viaggi, fatiche, patimenti, opere ec... nell'Imperio di Cina (...) (Livorno: Eredi Santini, 1759). Accessible via Google Books.

>>>

literature

M. Da Civezza, Storia universale delle missioni francescane (Florence, 1895) viii—xi, 528-717; Sbaralea, Supplentum (ed. Rome, 1936) III, 208; A. Van den Wyngaert, ‘Castorano’, DHGE XI, 1456 (with additional references); Francesco D'Arelli, 'Sul fondo manoscritto 'De Rebus Sinesubus' del Fr. Carlo Orazio da Castorano custodito nella Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele di Napoli', Asia Orientale 5-6 (Naples, 1987), 7-48; Arnulf Camps & Patrick E. Mc Closkey, The Friars Minor in China 1294-1955, Especially the years 1925-55 (New York-Rome: Istituto Francescano Università di San Bonaventura, Segretariato generale per l'Evangelizzazione Missionaria Curia Generalizia O.F.M., 1995), passim; Arnulf Camps, ‘Carolo Orazi da Castorano O.F.M. (1673-1755) on the Prophet Muhammad and on the Master Philosopher Confucius’, Neue Zeitschrift für Missionswissenschaft 56 (2000), 35-43.

 

 

 

 

Carolus Lodoli (Carlo Lodoli, d. 1761)

Observant friar. Born in 1690. In the course of his life, he developed a series of architectural principles that broke with baroque and roccoco styles, and that would have anticipated functionalist and rationalist architectural concepts. Although Lodoli apparently did write a lengthy treatise on his architecturual ideas, he never published it. He also did not do much practical architectural work, although he was involved with the restauration of the pilgrims' hospice of the Franciscans in Venice. Most of his insights can be gathered from the works issued by a number of his pupils, with whom he discussed at his ideas at length in Socrates-style dialogues, such as Francesco Algarotti (in his Saggio sopra l'architettura (1757)), Francesco Milizia, and especially Andrea Memmo (1729-1793, author of the influential Elementi d’architettura lodoliana (1786/1834)). Beyond that, some elements of Lodoli's ideas were also included in the anecdotal and aphoristic Apologhi immaginati (1787).

editions

Andrea Memmo, Elementi d’architettura lodoliana ossia l’arte del fabbricare con solidità scientifica e con eleganza non capricciosa. Libri due (Zara-Milan: Fratelli Battara-Società editrice dei Classici Italiani di Architettura Civile, 1834). This edition is accessible via Google Books.

Apologhi immaginati, e sol estemporaneamente in voce esposti agli amici suoi: dal fu fra Carlo de' conti Lodoli, min. osservante di S. Francesco, facilmente utili all'onesta gioventù, ed ora per la prima volta pubblicati nell'occasione del solenne ingresso che fa alla procuratia di S. Marco, ed. Andrea Memmo (Bassano, 1787). Accessible via Archive.org.

literature

Pierro Del Negro, ‘Lodoli Carlo’, DBI 65, 390-393; Marc J. Neveu, Architectural Lessons of Carlo Lodoli (1690-1761): Indole of Material and of Self Thesis McGill University (Montreal, 2006); Marc J. Neveu, 'The Indole of Education: The Apologues of Carlo Lodoli', Getty Research Journal 1 (2009) DOI: 10.1086/grj.1.23005364 [http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/grj.1.23005364?journalCode=grj]; Cosmin Ungureanu, "Sia funzion la rappresentazione'. Carlo Lodoli and the Crisis of Architecture', RIHA Journal (January-March, 2011) [http://www.riha-journal.org/articles/2011/2011-jan-mar/ungureanu-carlo-lodoli]

 

 

 

 

Carolus Maria Angeletti (Carolus Maria Perusinus/Carlo Maria Angeletti, 1706-1758)

OFM. Friar from Perugia. Entered the order at the age of 16. Became lector of theology. Thereafter provincial of the Umbrian province, followed by other administrative charges, and a position as official order chronicler. Died at Rome or at Perugia on 28 August 1758. Book collector and author. Issued for instance a new edition of Giulio da Venezia/Julius de Venetiis's Chronologia Historico-Legalis Totius Ordinis Fratrum Minorum. Left his books to the Monteripido convent. There can also be found several autograph manuscripts.

editions

Asserta Theologica ad Mentem Subtilis Ioh. Scoti (Florence, 1739).

Sposizione delle diligenze, scoperte e riflessioni fatte sopra la testa del glorioso martire S. Ponziano insigne Protettore di Spoleto (Perugia, 1747).

Chronologia Historico-Legalis Totius Ordinis Fratrum Minorum, 3 Vols. (Rome: Michele da Ripa, 1752). At least in part accessible via Google Books.

Risposta ad un manifesto de’PP. Conventuali sul proposito del S. Perdono di Assisi in occasione della pesta di Messina (s.l., a.s.)

>>>>

literature

Dizionario di opere anonime e pseudonime: di scrittori italiani o come che sia aventi relazione all'Italia, Tomo II: H-R, ed. Gaetano Melzi (Milan: Luigi di Giacomo Pirola, 1852), 464; Vermiglioli, Biografia degli scrittori Perugini (Perugia, 1828) I, 44; Miscellanea Francescana 3 (1888), 50; L. Oliger, ‘Angeletti’, DHGE III, 51.

 

 

 

 

Carolus Josephus Rosales (Carlos José Rosales, fl. first half 18th cent.)

OFM. Language scholar. His name is present on a list of friars in the Santissima Nombre de Jesus province in Guatemala dating from 1740. The Gramática mentions that he was by 1748 a ‘Padre Predicador Jubilado’.

editions

Carlos J. Rosales, Gramática del idioma Cachiquel. 1748. Publícala por vez primera con una introducción, una bibliografía Cachiquel-Kiche-Zuhutil, correcciones, notas, un paralelo del Cachiquel y un compendio de la Doctrina Cristiana en Cachiquel y Castellano el P. Fr. Daniel Sánchez García, ed. Daniel Sánchez García (Guatemala, 1919).

literature

A Bio-Bibliography of Franciscan Authors in Colonial Central America, ed. Eleanor B. Adams (Washington D.C.: Academy of American Franciscan History, 1953), 70.

 

 

 

 

Carolus Sanchez (Carlos Sánchez, fl. first half 18th cent.)

OFM. Friar from the Castilia province.

literature

AIA 8 (1917), 117; Manuel de Castro, Bibliografía de las bibliografias franciscanas españolas e hispanoamericanas, Publicaciones de Archivo Ibero-Americano (Madrid: Ed. Cisneros, 1982), 177 (no. 772).

 

 

 

 

Carolus Verri Cremonensis (Carlo Verri da Cremona, fl. 17th cent.)

OFMCap. Moral theologian.

Ricordi per essercitar il caritativo officio d'aiutar a christianamente morire quei meschini che sono dalla giustizia condannati a morte. Con l'aggiunta d'alcuni dubbij spettanti allo stato, e salvezza di detti giustitiati dopo la loro morte (Milan: Federico Agnelli, 1672). This work was written for a chaplain involved with the Milanese Compagnia di san Giovanni Decollato alle Case rotte detta della Misericordia, which assisted prisoners and those condemned to death.

literature

DThCat II, 2274 

 

 

 

 

Carus Aretinus>>

>>>

manuscripts

Comm. in I Sent (?): Florence, Naz. D.I.275, ff. 3r-84v

literature

Doucet, AFH, 47 (1954), 112

 

 

 

 

Casimir Casani de Marsala (1676-1762)

OFMCap. Lector of philosophy in 1704. Later also theology lector in the Palermo province. Two-times provincial minister (1723-1726 et 1740-1744), consultant of the Sicilian inquisition, especially with regard to quietist tendencies, theological controversialist (especially against Michel Molinos) and spiritual author. He died at Marsala on 15 August 1762.

editions

Dissertationes mystico-scholasticae adversus Pseudo-Mysticos hujus aevi (...) seu Contra Molinosios Larvatos Fuco purgationis passive decipientes animas, & docentes: Dari, saltem in aliquibus animabus perfectis, Tentationes extraordinarias, Novi generis, quae sint Irresistibiles. Ostentitur etiam, Deum non permittere Daemonum Incubum vi opprimere Virum, aut Mulierum omninò renuentem, Juxta Divinae Scripturae Oracula, SS. Patrum Testimonia (...) Opus tum poenitentibus, tum confessariis utilissimum, et necessarium jussu SS. Inquisitionis Siculae Regii, & Apostolici tàm Supremi, quàm Generalis tribunalis vigilantissimi &c. Editum, eique Dicatum (Palermo: Giuseppe Gramignani, 1748). Available via Google Books.

Crisis mystico-dogmatica adversus propositiones Michaelis Molinos, 2 Vols. (Palermo: Fr. Valenza, 1751-1752).

Appendix critica mystico-dogmatica (Palermo: Fr. Valenza 1752).

La Via di mezzo nel camino della perfezione cristiana (Palermo: Giuseppe Gramagnani, 1753).

Il mese contemplativo delle perfezioni divine (Palermo: Giuseppe Gramagnani, 1755).

literature

DThCat II, 1821; DSpir II, 212-214.

 

 

 

 

Caspar Alenda (Casparo Alenada, d. 1642)

OFM. Spanish friar from the Decalza branch in the St. John the Baptist province. Was already an esteemed preacher before he embarked on a missionary journey to the Philippines in 1611. He worked in this Spanish colony until 1633. In that year he travelled with six other Franciscan friars to Formosa (Taiwan), which had just been occupied by the Spanish. In 1636, he went to the Chinese mainland (Fongan). In August 1637, he came to Beijng, opposing the use of the so-called Chinese rites among the Christians there. He was taken into custody by the Chinese authorities. A Chinese court apparently condemned him to death by crucifixion. Yet this death penalty was commuted into a sentence of perpetual exile. Via Macao, Casparo returned to Formosa, where he organised the building of a church and engaged in further missionary work. On 25 August 1642, he was killed by a stray bullet from the Dutch forces invading the island. Casparo wrote a Relacion de mi viage a Peking (signed 12 Augtust 1638).

editions

Relacion de mi viage a Peking>>>?

literature

Marcellino da Civezza, Saggio di bibliografia sanfrancescana (Prato, 1879), 12; Fr. Miggenes, ‘Mission seraphica in imperio Sinarum, in: Analecta Franciscana (Quaracchi, 1885) I, 28-30, 39; Antoine de Sérent, ‘Alenda (Gaspar)’, DHGE II (1914), 97-98; J. Ricci, ‘Martyrologium franciscanum sinense’, Acta Ordinis Fratrum Minorum 47 (1928), 212; Martyrologium Franciscanum,ed. I. Beschin & J. Palazzolo (Vicenza, 1939), 326-327; A. van den Wyngaert, Sinica Franciscana (Quaracchi, 1933) II, 236 (no. 236), 287; Archivo Ibero-Americano 8 (1948), 557;

 

 

 

 

Caspar Casparini (Gasparo Gasparini, 1623-1705)

OFMConv. Italian friar. Joined the order in his birth town Castignano (Ascoli Piceno province). Commissioner for the Orient (1662/63-16665) and guardian of the Fano friary (1666). After some tasks performed for the minister general, he was appointed patriarchal vicar of Constantinople, carrying the additional title of bishop of Spiga. Active in Constantinople between April 1678 until his death in 1705, defending the cause of both Catholic Christians and Armenian Christians in the Ottoman empire, and maintaining relationships with the Greek Orthodox. Helped to breach the gap between Armenian christianity and the church of Rome. Author?

literature

Wadding, Annales Minorum (ed. Rome, 1964) XXXII, 361-362 & 399; M. Belin, Histoire de la Latinité de Constantinople (Paris, 1894), 167-168, 172-173, 355-356; Eubel, Hierarchia V, 361; L. Lemmens, Hierarchia Latina Orientalis, Orientalia christiana, V (Rome, 1923), 273, 283; G. Montico, La Provincia d’Oriente dei Frati Minori Conventuali (Padua, 1939), 18-19, 33; G. Odoardi, ‘Mons. Gasoar Gasparini, O.F.M. Conv., vicario patriarcale di Costantinopoli (1676-1705) e gli Armeni cattolici d’Oriente’, Rivista Armena dei Monaci Mechitaristi (Venice, 1949), 68-90; G. Matteucci, Un glorioso convento francescano sulle rive del Bosforo (Florence, 1967), 301-314-315; O. Odoardi, ‘I Frati Minori Conventuali e Propaganda Fide’, Miscellanea Francescana 72 (1972), 149, 151-153, 158; O. Odoardi, ‘Gasparini’, DHGE XIX, 1362-1363.

 

 

 

 

Caspar de Léon (Gaspar de León, fl. 1554)

Preacher in the Santiago province and homiletic author.

editions

Sermones et homiliae totius anni (Salamanca: Andreas à Portonariis, 1554).

literature

AIA 40 (1980), 169-172.

 

 

 

 

Caspar de Fuente (Gaspar de la Fuente/Gaspard de la Fuente, ca. 1596-ca. 1665)

OFM. Observant friar from Toledo. Entered the order in the Castilian province. Studied at the university of Alcalá as a resident of the San Diego or the Santa Maria de Jesús friary, and obtained his doctorate in theology (degree studies between 1613-1619). After finishing his studies, he taught liberal arts at San Pietro in Montorio (Rome, 1619-1622) and theology at San Isidoro (Rome, 1622-1625). Back in Spain, he was appointed guardian at Alcalá, as well as professor of theology and study prefect for Franciscan pupils. Between 1635 and 1639, Gaspar resided in the San Francisco el Grande friary of Madrid, first as secretary of the provincial, and between 1636 and 1639 as provincial minister. This proved to be a stepping stone for further secretarial and administrative charges. In 1639, the general chapter of Rome appointed him to the position of general secretary of Juan Merino. And at the general chapter of Toledo in 1645, Gaspar was elected general definitor for the Ultramontan Observants. Two years later, in 1647, he was asked to take part in a committee (together with Pedro de Alva y Astorga, Pedro de Valvás and Juan Gutiérrez) that compiled the Arsenal Seráfico, a defense of the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary. In 1653, Gaspar subsequently was chosen by King Philip IV of Spain to become the theologian of the Spanish ambassador in Rome (the Franciscan Observant friar Pedro de Urbina, Archbishop of Valencia). Two years later, Gaspar was again elected provincial of the Castilian province (1655-1658). In this period, the Spanish King appointed him in a committee that again promoted the immaculate conception. In this period, Gaspar also became involved with inquisitorial activities, being made censor of the Catholic faith and a consultant of the Sacrum Officium. When King Philip IV wanted Gaspar to become bishop of Vigevano (Milan area), Gaspar felt it necessary to decline (possibly for reasons of health). Gaspar was a productive Scotist theologian, who published a number of works, both of an academic and of an administrative and polemical nature.

editions

Apologiae Plures Ordinis Minorum (>>>?)

Christi D. Filii dei eivsovi beatiss. matris virginis mariae gloriae suv Philippi IV regis catholici augustissima protectione (1649).

Quaestiones Dialecticae et Physicae ad Mentem Subtilissimi Doctoris Joannis Duns Scoti (Lyon: Jacob & Andrea Prost, 1631).

Historia del Capitulo General de la Religión Seráfica Celebrado en Toledo, 1633 (Madrid, 1633).

Constitutiones ad Regimen Monialium Provinciae Castellae (Madrid, 1648).

(with Pedro de Alva y Astorga, Pedro de Valvás and Juan Gutiérrez & José Maldonado) Armamentarium Seraphicum et Regestum Universale pro Tuendo Titulo Immaculatae Conceptionis (Madrid: Typ. Regia, 1649). Accessible via Google Books.

literature

Wadding, Annales Minorum XXIX (ed. Quaracchi, 1948), 115 & XXX (ed. Quaracchi, 1951), 232; Juan de San Antonio, Bibliotheca Franciscana (Madrid, 1732) II, 8 & III, 21; Sbaralea, Supplementum I, 317; Salmanticensis 1 (1954), 606-621; AIA 2nd ser. 15 (1955), 254, 457, 516, 554, 625, 656, 671, 693; AIA 2nd ser. 24 (1964), 272-273, 281; AIA 2nd ser. 28 (1968), 180; M. Acebal Luján, ‘Fuente’, DHGE XIX, 285-286 (with additional bibliographical references).

 

 

 

 

Caspar de Lusiterna (Gaspar de Lisboa, fl. ca. 1600)

Observant friar from Lisbon. Missionary in China, Indochina, and India. Five of his letters have survived.

manuscripts/editions

Litterae, most of them published in F. Lopes, ‘Os Franciscanos no Oriente Português, de 1584-1590’, Studia 9 (January 1962), doc. II, 70-90, doc. III, 90-101, doc. IV, 102-109 & doc. V, 109-126; L. Peres, Archivo Ibero-Americano 5 (1916), 396-408. See also Archives de Simancas, livro 1551 ff. 135-136 & ff. 669-674.

literature

A. Meersman, The Ancient Franciscan Provinces of India (Bangalore, 1971), 15, 17, 35, 39, 50, 71-72, 162, 248, 262, 299, 300, 322, 388, 435.

 

 

 

 

Caspar de Montesanto (Gasparo da Montesanto; Casparo Cantarini, 1731-1796)

Observant friar from de March of Ancona. Born in Potenza Picena (Monte Santo). Preacher and professor of theology and philosophy. Prolific author of sermons, eulogies, spiritual guides, ascetical novice training texts, explanatory texts on indulgences (esp. the Portiuncola indulgence), hagiographical texts on Bonaventure of Bagnoregio, Bernardino of Siena, Giacomo della Marca, Gabriel Ferretti etc., . Not all of these texts found their way to the printing press. Most successful were his novice training treatises, which were edited several times.

editions

Gesta e dottrina del serafico dottore S. Bonaventura ottavo ministro generale dell'ordine de'minori Cardinale della Santa Romana Chiesa e Vescovo d'Albano (Macerata: Antonio Fortesi, 1793/Florence, 1874). The 1874 edition is available via Google Books.

La sagrada religiosa famiglia. Raccolta in solitudine per dieci giorni di spirituali esercizi (...), 2nd Ed. (Ancona: Arcangelo Sartori et Figlio, 1796/Rome: Giovanni Ferretti, 1854). The 1851 edition is accessible via Google Books.

La sagra religiosa famiglia. Raccolta in solitudine per otto giorni di spirituali esercizi a richiamare i doveri, e a rinovare lo spirito della professione colla seria ponderazione delle Massime eterne concernenti lo stato religiosa (...) (Ancona: Michele Arcangiolo Sartori, 1774). Accessible via Google Books.

Gesta dell'Apostolo San Giacomo della Marca Anconitana della Regoplare Osservanza dell'Ordine de'Minori (Ascoli: Il Cardi, 1804). Accessible via Google Books.

literature

Wadding, Scriptores III, 235-236; Luigi Tassi da Fabriano, Cenni cronologico-biografici della Osservante Provincia Picena (Quaracchi, 1886), 205-206; A. Talamonti, Cronistoria dei Frati Minori della Provincia Lauretana delle Marche (Sassoferrato, 1939-1961) II, 105; V, 281; Cl. Schmitt, ‘Gaspard de Montesanto’, DHGE XIX, 1357.

 

 

 

 

Caspar de Uceda (Gaspar de Uceda, fl. second half 16th century)

Franciscan theologian and professor at the university of Salamanca. Known for his treatise against the limpieza de sangre doctrine, which he issued in 1586.

editions and literature

El tratado de Uceda contra los Estatutos de Limpieza de Sangre, ed. Elvira Pérez Ferreiro (Madrid: Aben Ezra, 2000).

 

 

 

 

Caspar de Vergara (Gaspar de Vergara, fl. early 17th cent.)

OFM. Preacher from the Granada province.

literature

AIA 28 (1968), 464; Manuel de Castro, Bibliografía de las bibliografias franciscanas españolas e hispanoamericanas, Publicaciones de Archivo Ibero-Americano (Madrid: Ed. Cisneros, 1982), 190 (no. 864).

 

 

 

 

Caspar de Viana (Gasparo de Viana, d. after 1677)

OFMCap. Spanish friar. Entered the Capuchin order in the Castilia province on 10 August 1635. Preacher, first Capuchin custodian in Castille and spiritual author, strongly influenced by Tauler and Benedict of Canfeld. Provincial definitor in 1675.

editions

Luz claríssima que desengãna, mueve, guia y aficiona las almas que aspiran a la perfección, y securo à la union de Dios. Encendida con las luzes, y doctrina de la Sagrada Escritura, Santos Padres, y Doctores Misticos (...) (Madrid: Domingo Garcia Morràs, 1661/2nd ed. 1672). The 1661 edition is accessible via Google Books.

Luz práctica del mejor, más fácil y útil camino del cielo y de la perfección cristiana (Madrid, 1665).

Camino del cielo y de la perfección cristiana, 2a parta (Madrid, 1665).

Ejercicios espirituales (Madrid, 1674). Lost?

Discursos quadragesimales literales de el Abulense, morales de los santos padres, de domingos (...) (Madrid: Melchor Sanchez, 1675). Accessible via Google Books.

literature

Bernardo di Bologna, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Fratrum Minorum Capuccinorum (Venice, 1747), 109; Bonaventura de Carrocera, Necrologio de los fratros capuchinos de Castilla (Madrid, 1943), 228-229; Bonaventura de Carrocera, La provincia de Frailes Menores Capuchinos de Castilla (Madrid, 1949), 320-321, 333-334; E. Allison Peers, Studies of the Spanish Mystics (London, 1960) III, 129-134; LexCap, 666; Melchior de Pobladura, ‘Gaspard de Viana’, DSpir VI, 137.

 

 

 

 

Caspar de Sancto Michaelo (Gaspar de Sâo Miguel, fl. first half 17th cent.)

Portuguese friar. As a novice, he travelled to Goa. There he completed his religious formation and his subsequent studies (studied theology under the historian Paulo da Trinidade, who mentions Gaspar in his Conquista Espiritual do Oriente, ed. F. Lopes (Lisbon, 1965) I, 106, 109, 145, 164 & II, 119, 386). Active as a missionary in Goa and especially in the Bardez region. Became a noted specialist of the Indo-Arian Konkani language, and was asked to teach at the Three Kings college. In 1635, Gaspar received the title Pater Christianorum, responsible for all the new Christians in the Bardez province. Prolific author.

manuscripts/editions

Arte da Lingoa Canarim: MS London, School of Oriental and African Studies, Marsden 11559. The second part of this work was edited in recent times as: Gaspar de S. Miguel O.F.M., Arte da Lingoa, Parte 2a, Sintaxis Copiosissima na Lingoa Bramana e Pollida, A Syntax of Standard Konkani, ed. J. Pereira, Journal of the University of Bombay, Special Arts Number (Bombay, 1968).

Gramatica da lingua bramana que corre na Ilha de Goa e sua comarca

Syntaxis copiosissima na lingua bramana e pollida

Sermons de tempore et de sanctis in the Konkani language, 4 Vols. >>

Konkani-Portuguese dictionary>>

Symbolum Cardinalis Bellarmini: A Konkani translation of Bellarmini’s Dichiariazione più copiosa della Dottrina Cristiana>>

A Konkani translation of the Portuguese catechism of Louis de Granada (1504-1588).

A large corpus of Konkani religious poetry for catechetical purposes (including an verse explanation of the apostolic creed, the passion of Christ, refutations of Hinduist ideas, and a ‘Garland of True Knowledge’ or ‘Vivekamalla’

Manual para os parochos e Reitores

Das Estações que os Paroches devem fazer as suas ovelhas, empqye se ensinam os Mysterios da Nossa Santa Fe e se explicam os sete Sacramentos e preceitos do Decalogo

De visibus gentilium, a work against Hindu rites and sacrificial practices.

Baculo Pastoral

De septem sacramentis

Most of these texts have never seen a modern edition. Some old editions once existed of several of these works.

literature 

Mariano Saldanha, ‘História de Gramática Concani’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies 8 (1935–37), 715-735; A. Meersman, ‘Notes on the Study of the Indian Languages by the Franciscans’, NZM 16 (1960), 45-46; A. Meersman, The Ancient Franciscan Provinces of India (Bangalore, 1971), 82ff, 89, 119, 554; E.R. Hambye, ‘Gaspard de Saint-Michel’, DHGE XIX, 1358-1359; Manohararaya Saradesaya/ManoharRai SarDessai, A History of Konkani Literature: From 1500 to 1992 (New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, 2000), 62-64; Otto Zwartjes, Portuguese Missionary Grammars in Asia, Africa and Brazil, 1550-1800 (Amsterdam-Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing, 2011), 47.

 

 

 

 

Caspar de Sancto Spirito (Gaspar del Espíritu Santo, fl. c. 1720)

OFMDisc. Member of the San José province.

literature

AIA 21 (1924), 298; Manuel de Castro, Bibliografía de las bibliografias franciscanas españolas e hispanoamericanas, Publicaciones de Archivo Ibero-Americano (Madrid: Ed. Cisneros, 1982), 120 (no. 356)

 

 

 

 

Caspar de Vigachoaga (Gaspar de Vigachoaga, fl. early 17th cent.)

OFM. Preacher from the Santiago province. Consultant for the inquisition, provincial definitor and guardian.

editions

Primera parte de los Sermones de la limpissima concepcion de nuestra Señora, Predicados en el Real Convento de San Francisco de Salamanca, y recogidos por el Padre Gaspar de Vigachoaga, Predicador, y Guardian del y Commissario de la Nacion de Castilla (Salamanca: Diego Cussio, 1619). Accessible via Google Books.

literature

AIA 15 (1955), 486-487; Manuel de Castro, Bibliografía de las bibliografias franciscanas españolas e hispanoamericanas, Publicaciones de Archivo Ibero-Americano (Madrid: Ed. Cisneros, 1982), 190 (no. 869).

 

 

 

 

Caspar Malandrinus (Gaspare Malandrino da Noto, d. 1690)

OFMConv. Missionary and author.

literature

Antonel Aurel Ilies, 'P. Gaspare Malandrino da Noto: Frate minore conventuale, missionario in Moldavia e la sua ‘possibile’ traduzione del Catechismo del card. Bellarmino in lingua romena’, in: Francescanesimo e cultura a Noto. Atti del convegno internazionale di studi, ed. Diego Ciccareli & Simona Sarzana, Francisana, 12 (Palermo: Biblioteca francescana, Officina di studi medievali, 2005), 111-120.

 

 

 

 

Caspar Meckenloer (Kaspar Meckenlör, fl. c. 1530)

OFM. Theologian and preacher. Guardian of the Arnstadt friary in 1531. Took a stance against Lutheranism. Known for instance for a disputation from 1530 in the Castle of Mansfeld, where he defended Catholicism against the reformatory preacher Michael Cölius in the presence of the Count of Mansfeld.

editions

Ab auch alle schrifft lerne Christu[m] alleyn erkennen vnd glewben, ahne volgung (...) (Leipzig: Valentinus Schumann, 1531). Accessible via Google Books.

literature

Johannes Schlageter, ‘Die Auseinandersetzung des Franziskaners Kaspar Meckenlör mit dem Mansfelder reformatorischen Prediger Michael Cölius (1530/31)’, Wissenschaft und Weisheit 68 (2005), 3-33.

 

 

 

 

Caspar Najera (Gaspar Nájera, fl. late 16th cent.)

Native from Yucatan. Was definitor for the Guatemala province in 1579, 1597 and 1603. In between he was the guardian of the Mérida friary in 1580. In 1581, he was in Spain to recruit new friars for Yucatan.

manuscripts

Relacion. Mentioned in: Colección de documentos inéditos (...) de ultramar, vol. 11: Relación de Yucatan, 153.

literature

A Bio-Bibliography of Franciscan Authors in Colonial Central America, ed. Eleanor B. Adams (Washington D.C.: Academy of American Franciscan History, 1953), 60

 

 

 

 

Caspar Sagar (Kaspar, fl. c. 1530)

Observant friar. Guardian of the Leipzig friary in 1532 and several of other convents in that region. Between 1535 and 1538 provincial minister of the Saxonian S. Crucis province. Composed several catechetical texts. Died after 1543.

editions

Qui Deum Optimum Maximum Spiritu et Veritate Adoratum Oporteat (Leipzig: ex officina Melchioris Lottheri, 1534)

Habita Dominicae Praecis, Quod Pater Noster Dicitur (Leipzig: apud Michaelem Blum, 1533/1534). This is an explication of the Pater Noster in 11 chapters. the 1534 edition is accessible via Google Books.

Pia Iuxta ac Perbrevis Dominicae Orationis Enarratio (Cologne: apud Melchiorem Novesianum, 1535). An explication of the seven prayers of the Pater Noster and a work on the commandment of charity.

literature

Leonhard Lemmens, 'Briefe und Urkunden des XVI. Jahrhunderts zur Geschichte der sächsischen Franziskaner', Beiträge zur S. Franziskanerprovinz 4/5 (1911/12), 43-100 (esp. 62-64); B. Katterbach, Franz. Stud., 12 (1925), 260f. [check!]; D. Göcking, ‘Kaspar Sager OFM’, Wissenschaft und Weisheit 60 (1997), 231-256; Joannes Schlageter, Die sächsischen Franziskaner und ihre theologische Auseinandersetzung mit der frühen deutschen Reformation, Franziskanische Forschungen, 52 (Münster: Achendorff, 2012), 283-290; Volker Honemann, ‘Das mittelalterliche Schrifttum der Franziskaner der Sächsischen Ordensprovinz unter besonderer Berücksichtigung deutschsprachiger Zeugnisse’, in: Geschichte der Sächsischen Franziskanerprovinz, 1: Von den Anfängen bis zur Reformation, ed. Volker Honemann (Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2015), 714.

 

 

 

 

Caspar Schatzgeyer (Kaspar Schatzgeyer, 1463/1464 - 18 September 1527)

OMObs. Bavarian friar. Born in Landshut. Studied the liberal arts at the university of Ingolstadt (ca. 1480) and became baccalaureus artium. Entered the Observant branch of the Franciscan order in Landshut, where he taught theology from 1487 onwards (which implies that he had received a theological education after his entry in the order). Taught at Ingolstadt between 1489 and 1496. Thereafter preacher and guardian in Munich (1498-1505/7). In the learly sixteenth century, he went back to Ingolstadt, where he was preacher and lector of theology (1508-1511), where he became on friendly terms with Johannes Eck. Caspar was guardian of Ingolstadt between 1513 and 1514 (‘…Schatzgeyer habe als Guardian die Gewohnheit gehabt, dem versammelten Konvent erbauliche Vorträge zu halten, zu deren Gegenstand er die verschiedenen Bücher der Hl. Schrift wählte.’ Landmann, Franziskanische Studien 15 (1928), 341]. Elected provincial vicar of the Strasbourg province in 1514. Took part in the general chapter of Rome (1517), returning to the Strasbourg province with the title of provincial minister (the first provincial minister of the Observants in Strasbourg). Between 1517 and 1520, he again was guardian at Nürnberg. In 1520, he was officially confirmed as provincial minister of the Strasbourg Observants on the provincial chapter of Augsburg. Schatzgeyer proved a staunch defender of the Observant cause, both against the Conventuals, and against the Coletan friars (Boniface da Ceva in particular). He also became very active as a polemical author against the Lutheran movement. Aside from his various polemical writings, defending the Observant cause and the Catholic cause, he also wrote an interesting spiritual treatise (a.o. the Formula Vitae Christianae), and a series of sermons (unedited?).

manuscripts

Sermones: Munich, Universitätsbibliothek Cod. Mss 61 & 62 (1513-1514); Munich, Staatsbibliothek Clm 7803 ff. 44-142 (sermons dating from the period 1526-1527 and written by Matthias Walch in 1529) & Clm 9056; >>>> [These manuscripts contain several sermon cycles from different periods in Schatsgeyer’s career. Interesting in particular are his 1511-1512 Lenten cycles on the Ten Commandments (Quadragesimale Tractans de Decem Preceptis Dei , MS Munich, Universitätsbibliothek Cod. Mss 61 ff. 56-126), and on the spiritual struggle against sins (Quadragesimale de Pugna Vitiorum et Illi Annexis, MS Munich, Universitätsbibliothek Cod. Mss 61 ff. 1-53 & 62 ff. 105-246.)]

editions

A selection of his works appeared as: Opera Omnia, ed. Johann Bachmnn OFM (Ingolstadt: Alexander Weisseborn, 1543). Some individual works are mentioned below.

Formula Vitae Christianae (Antwerp, 1534). The work can also be found in the Opera Omnia. [This work, written in 1501 for Heinrich Kunzer, Abt of Tegernsee, amounts to a series of instructions for believers willing to live a perfect religious life. In all, 33 instructions for industrious Christians who want to live a virtuous life. Heavy emphasis on the love for God and on charity, and remarks that actions like penance exercises and prayers can only be seen as means to an end.]

De perfecta atque Contemplativa Vita, in: Idem, Opera Omnia (Ingolstadt: Alexander Weisseborn, 1543), 317v-333v.

Apologia Status Fratrum Ordinis Minorum de Observantia (Basel, 1516) [Refutation of Boniface de Ceva’s Defensorium Elucidativum. Schatzgeyer’s ideas formed a basis for the fundamental 1517 re-organisation of the order as a whole]. This work is now available via Google Books.

Scrutinium Divinae Scripturae pro Conciliatione Dissidentium Dogmatum (Basel, 1522); Scrutinium Divinae Scripturae pro Conciliatione Dissidentium Dogmatum, ed. U. Schmidt, Corpus Catholicorum 5 (Münster, 1922). [lengthy refutation of Lutheran allegations, written in response to the call for Catholic defensory writings by the Franciscan minister general Paul de Soncino (at the general chapter of 1521). In the Scrutinium, Schatzgeyer dealt with all the points of strife between early Protestant reformers and their Catholic opponents: grace, free will (liberum arbitrium), nature and practice of priesthood, the eucharist, faith, good works and place of charity, religious vows and celibacy, the cult of saints, papal primacy etc.]

Schriften zur Verteidigung der Messe, ed. E. Iserloh & P. Fabisch, Corpus Catholicorum 37 (Münster, 1984) [edition of seven treatises]

Abwaschung des unflats, so Andreas Osiander dem Gaspar Schatzger in sein antlitz gespiben hat Begreift inn ir zwo materi, Die erst von unsers lieben herrn Testament, Die ander von dem opffer der mess (Landshut, 1525). For digital access to such early editions, see the webportal of the Munich State Library.

Vom fegfeür oder volko[m]mner Raynigung der außerwölten, Das durch die gnugthuung Christi, das Fegfeüer nit außgelescht ist ... Wiewol er durch sein leyden den weg zu der seligkait geraumbt, vn[d] die thür geöffnet hat (Munich, 1525). For digital access, see the webportal of the Munich State Library.

Ware erklärung vnd vnderrichtung ains Artickels, die Eeschaidung betreffend (Munich, 1524).

Vonn Christliche[n] satzungen un[d] leeren, ain Christförmigs leben (der werck halben) betreffend Welche anzunemen oder auß zeschlahe[n] seyen (Munich, 1524).

Von der waren christlichen und evangelischen Freyheit. De vera Libertate Evangelica, ed. E. Iserloh & P. Fabisch, Corpus Catholicorum 40 (Münster, 1987). This work first came out in or round 1524: Von der warn Christlichen und Evangelischen freyheit ein außgedruckte erklärung mit zwelff Cristlichen leeren, und nachvolgend mit zwaintzig irrsalen den leeren widerstrebenten (Munich, 1524). For digital access to such early editions, see the webportal of the Munich State Library.

Wider herr Hansen von Schwartzenbergs neülich außgangen püechlin von der Kirchendiener vn[d] gaystlichen personen Ee Auß gründtlicher erkläru[n]g des heyligen Pauli sprüchs 1. Thimo.4. in dem er redet von verpietu[n]g der Eelich werdung vn[d] enthaltung von ettlicher speyß ; Mit anhenngung ettlicher andern mitlauffender materyen, ainem yeden Criste[n] nützlich zewissen (Munich, 1527). For digital access, see the webportal of the Munich State Library ( http://www.digitale-sammlungen.de/index.html?c=faecher_index&l=de&kl=kl12&vtr=8021&btr=8030&mtr=10&trs=10&ab= )

Von dem hayligisten Opffer der Meß, sampt jren dreyen fürnemlichsten, vnd wesentlichsten taylenn, Das ist, vonn der Consecrierung, Opfferung, vn[d] Empfahu[n]g des hochwirdigstenn Fronleychnams Christi Ob der gemein Christenmensch, vnder ainer oder Bayder gstaltt jn empfahenn soll (Augsburg, 1525). For digital access, see the webportal of the Munich State Library.

Verwerffung eines irrigenn artickels, das die seel Christi nach abschaidt vom leib in absteigung zu der hellen hab darinn geliden hellische pein Mit erklerung der warhayt warumb Christus zu der hellenn gestigenn sey (Landshut, 1526).

Fürhalltung XXX artigkl, so in gegenwürtiger verwerrung auf die pan gepracht, vn[d] durch ainen neüwen beschwörer der allten schlange[n] gerechtfertigt werden (Munich, 1525). For digital access, see the webportal of the Munich State Library.

Ein gietliche vn[d] freuntliche anntwort vn[d] vntterricht auf eines Eersamen, der warheyt begerenden Christlichen Burgers von Nürmberg ... sandtbrieff, antreffennd die new auffrur jn Christenlicher leer .... Darneben XXiiij Artigkel in fragweiß oder zweyflung gestellt. Auch ist gemellts Burgers sandtbrief von wort zu wort anfenngklich fürgedruckt (Munich, 1526). For digital access, see the webportal of the Munich State Library.

Ainn warhafftige Erkleru[n]g wie sich Sathanas Inn disen hernach geschriben vieren materyenn vergwentet vnnd erzaygt vnnder der gestalt eynes Enngels des Liechts Von dem Euanngelio, Von der Christlichen Kirchen, Von Sanct Peters Fürstenthumb, Von gemayn Concilien (Augsburg, 1526). For digital access to such early editions, see the webportal of the Munich State Library/Bayerische Staatsbibliothek.

De Cvltu & ueneratione sanctorum (Grimm, 1521). Available via Google Books, and via the digital collections of the Munich State Library/Bayerische Staatsbibliothek.

>>>> etc. will be continued. A provisional list of all edited and unedited works of Schatzgeyer has been made by M. Bihl, in: Analecta Franciscana VIII (1946), 833-836.

literature

Nikolaus Paulus, Kaspar Schatzgeyer, ein Vorkämpfer der katholischen Kirche gegen Luther in Süddeutschland, Strassburger theologische Studien, 3, book 1 (Strasbourg: Herder, 1898); Otfried Müller, Die Rechtfertigungslehre nominalistischer Reformationsgegner: Bartholomäus Arnoldi von Usingen O.E.S.A. und Kaspar Schatzgeyer O.F.M. über Erbsünde, erste Rechtfertigung und Taufe (Breslau, 1940); V. Heynk, ‘Zur Rechtfertigungslehre des Kontroverstheologen Kaspar Schatzgeyer’, Franziskanische Studien 28 (1941), 129-151; H. Klomps, Kirche, Freiheit und Gesetz bei dem Franziskaner Kaspar Schatzgeyer (Münster, 1959); C.G. Estabrook, Kaspar Schatzgeyer, O.F.M. and the Problem of Pre-Tridentine Catholicism (Harvard, 1964); E. Komposch, Die Messe als Opfer der Kirche. Die Lehre Kaspar Schatzgeyers (Munich, 1965); Paul Luther Nyhus, The Theology of Kaspar Schatzgeyer: A Franciscan Reaction to the Reformation (Harvard, 1969); Moorman, A History of the Franciscan Order, 510; Paul Nyhus, ‘Caspar Schatzgeyer and Conrad Pellikan: The Triumph of Dissension in the Early Sixteenth Century’, Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 61 (1970), 179-204; W. Klaiber, Katholische Kontrovers-theologen und Reformer des 16. Jahrhunderts (Münster, 1978), passim; DSpir. XIV, 403-404; Theologische Realenzyklopädie XXX, 76-80; Heribert Smolinsky, ‘Schatzgeyer (Sasger, Schatzger), Kaspar’,in: Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche 3IX, 111f.; Reimund Haas, ‘Schatzgeyer, (auch Sasger[us], Schatzger[us]), Kaspar (1463/64-1527)’, in: Biographisch-bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon 22 (2008), 1208-1213; Johannes Peter Wurm, ‘Eck (von, Eccius, Eckius, Maier, -or, -yer), Johannes (1486-1543)’, in: Deutscher Humanismus 1480-1520. Verfasserlexikon II (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2008), 576-589 (with info on relations/confrontations with Schatzgeyer on pp. 579-581).

 

 

 

 

Caspar Waler (d. 1502)

OFMObs. Procurator for the order at the Roman Curia. In this function he published a Latin indulgence letters in the context of a crusade against the Turcs, who had landed in Southern Italy (Otranto, 1480). The text was printed by Johann Sensenschmidt in Bamberg (Einblattdruck, 1482/1497?).

editions

Forma confessionalis et absolutionis ad recuperationem terrae sanctae et Turcorum expugnationem (Bamberg: Johann Sensenschmidt, 1482). Accessible via the digital collections of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Munich [http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/~db/0010/bsb00101256/images/]

literature

N. Paulus, Geschichte des Ablasses am Ausgänge des Mittelalters (1923) III, 204-207; Volker Honemann, ‘Waler, Caspar, obs’, Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters. Verfasserlexikon X (1999), 619-621 & XI (2004), 1644.

 

 

 

 

Cassianus Beligatti (Cassiano Beligatti da Macerata, 1708-1785)

OFMCap. Born at Macerata in 1708. He entered the order in 1725. After the Congregation for the Propaganda of the Faith decided to grant the Catholic mission to Tibet to the Capuchin (which had been contested by the Jesuits), Cassiano departed for that region in 1738, together with twelve fellow friars. Yet they had hardly arrived in 1741, when the ruler of Tibet ordered them to leave. On August 13, 1742, Cassiano set out for Nepal, where he was joined by other missionaries in 1745. Cassiano and his fellow friars evangelised with some success in Nepal and the Bengal area, until he was forced to return to Italy in 1756, due to illness. There, he was called to Rome by cardinal Spinelli (prefect of the Congregation for the Propaganda of the Faith) to train beginning missionaries for work in Tibet and Mongolia, and to write up the history of his travels . Eventually, Cassiano returned to Macerata, where he died in the Capuchin convent in 1785.

manuscripts/editions

Giornale di fra Cassiano da Macerata dalla sua partenza da Macerata seguita gli 17 agosto 1738 fino al suo ritorno nel 1756, divisi in due libri: MS Macerata, Biblioteca Comunale>>>. This work was one of the main sources for the Giorgi’s Alphabetum Tibetanum (Rome, 1762), which contains part of Cassiano’s Giornale under the title Itinerarium Lassense. A first modern edition of Cassiano’s Giornale can be found in Relazione inedita di un viaggio al Tibet del P. Cassiano Beligatti da Macerata, ed. A. Magnaghi (Florence, 1902). The work was also published in 2008 as: Viaggio al Tibet: 1738-1745, ed. Alberto Magnaghi, La biblioteca perduta, 19 (Il polifilo, 2008).

Memorie istoriche delle virtù, viaggi e fatiche del P. Giuseppe Maria Bernini da Gorgnano, viceprefetto delle missioni del Tibet, ed. Silvio da Brescia (Verona: Moroni, 1767).

Grammatica Samoscardan di caratteri malabarici, tradotta dal portoghese>>

Libro in caratteri e lingua industana, in cui spiegansi i commandamenti di Dio>>

Nova Grammatica Industanae Linguae>>>

>>Hindustan translation of the Gospel of Matthew: MS Macerata, Bibliotheca Comunale>>

Alphabetum Thibetanum (Rome, 1773).

La teologia dei Tibetani: MS Macerata, Biblioteca Comunale>> [apparently an account of the four ages of the world according to Brahman religion and a description of the 10 incarnations of Vishnu]

literature

G. da Fermo, Gli scrittori cappuccini delle Marche (Jesi, 1928), 24-26; A. Teetaert, ‘Beligatti’, DHGE VII, 769-770; LexCap>> 

 

 

 

 

Cassianus de Dijon (Cassian de Dijon, fl. mid 17th cent.)

OFMCap. Travelled in the Fall of 1651 to Rome in the company of his fellow friar Benjamin de Lyon to profit from the indulgences connected with the jubilee proclaimed in 1650. Once the friars had returned to France, Casian wrote an account of his journey for his fellow friars (Voyage de Rome).

editions

Voyage de Rome, ed. Gabriele Ingegneri, Collectanea Franciscana 75 (2005), 159-250. 

 

 

 

 

Cassianus Korczynski (Kasjan Korczynski/Kassyjan Korczynski, d. 1784)

OFMConv.

editions

Wzrost Y Ozdoba Blogoslawionego z Kopertynu Jozefa Wyznawcy Franciszkana (...) W dzien Niepokalanego Poczecia N. Maryi Panny w Roku 1754. w Kosciele Zawichostkim (...) Ogloszona. a potym w rece (...) Panu Alexandrowi Na Czyzowie Zaklika Czyzowskiemu (...) Ofiarowana (Lubjana: Drukarni J.K.M. Collegii Soc. Jesu, 1755).

Kazania Pokazuiace Jednosc, Prawde, Swiatobliwosc, Powszechnosc, Apostolstwo, Chrystusa Wiary, Jak w pierwszych Wiekach, tak zawsze w Kosciele Rzymskim kwitnacey (...) (Cracow: Drukarni J.O.X. Jmci Biskupa Krakowskiego, 1757).

Kazanie o B. Salomei Miane w Krakowie w kosciele S. Iedrzeia Apost. Roku 1758 (s.l. 1758).

Kazanie Wyslawiaiace Osobliwsza grzesznikow obrone Zturbowanych y ztroskanych serc ludzkich pocieche Doswiadczona w zyciu y w godzine smierci opieke Pierwszey z Meczenniczek Meczenniczki S. Tekli: Przy publicznym wystawieniu Relikwii Iey (...) w Kosciele Nowomieyskim Xiezy Franciszkanow miane Roku P. 1759 dnia 3 Czerwca y razem w rece (...) (Cracow: Drukarni Akademickiey, 1759).

Skarb Starego y Nowego Testamentu nieprzebranych lask, darow y blogoslawienstw Boskich (...) s. Anna przy vroczystosci doroczney swieta Jej w kosciele XX. franciszkanow konwentu nowomieyskiego kaznodzieyska mowa ogloszony (...) (Cracow: Michala Jozefa Antoniego Dyaszewskiego, 1760).

Kazanie o Blogoslawionym Jozefie z Kopertynv Wyznawcy Franciszkanie Miane przy dokonczeniu trzech dniowego Nabozenstwa Beatyfikacyi Iego W dzien Nipokalanego Poczecia N. Maryi Panny w Roku 1754 w Kosciele Zawichostskim Franciszkanskim (s.l.: s.n., post 10 V 1760).

Nieoszacowane Dwoch Serafinow Kleynoty Ofiara zycia w ustawiczney smierci, y ofiara smierci w nieustannym zyciu, znamienity Pierwszy Wzrostem Cnot rozlicznych, y Ozdoba wszelkiej Switobliwosci zalecony Drugi, Oba osobliwszym Milosci Boskiey ogniem zapalone, lak w doczesnym tak wiecznym zyciu nieustannie swiecace Blogoslawieni Salomea Panna Krolowa Halicka, (...) y Jozef Kopertyn Wyznawca Franciszkan (...) (Cracow: Drukarni Michala Jozefa Antoniego Dyaszewskiego, 1760).

Dobroc Pasterska S. Stanislawa Biskupa Krakowskiego Meczennika: W Kazaniu ku Czci Iego powiedzianym w Nowym Miescie w Kosciele pod tytulem tegoz Swietego Biskupa XX. Franciszkanow zalozoym Zalecona (Cracow: Drukarni Akademickiey, 1761).

Ofiara calopalenia w nieustannych miloci Chrystusowey pozarach, iedna, cala zawsze goreiaca w sercu bl. Kunegundy, panny rodem i nazwiskiem corki Beli IV, krola wegierskiego, zaslubieniem y godnoscia oblubienicy Pudyka, krola polskiego, powolaniem y zakonnoscia corki s. oyca Franciszka y s. matki Klary (...) (Cracow: Drukarni Akademickiey, 1761).

Kazanie pogrzebowe slawney y switey pamici [...] Apollonii z Morstynow Lanckoronski, stolnikowy podolskiey etc. w kosciele wodzislawskim dnia 12 maia 1762 miane (Cracow: Drukarni Akademickiey, 1762).

Kazania w katedrze krakowskiey roznemi czasy przez kilka lat miane, a potym zlozone na niedziele calego roku, z przydaniem innego podczas zaczynaiacego sie seymu convocationis na solemney o Duchu S. wotywie r. 1764 (Cracow: Seminarium Biskupiego Akademickiego, 1764).p>

Kazania na swieta calego roku w katedrze krakowskiey y w innych kosciolach roznemi czasami miane (Cracow: Seminarium Biskupiego Akademickiego, 1767).

Kazania pokazuiace jednosc, prawde (...) wiary (...) miane w Krakowie w kollegiacie Wszystkich Swietych podczas czterdziestodniowego postu we czwartki (...) roku 1757 (...) (Cracow: Seminarium Biskupiego Akademickiego, 1767).

Kazania o taiemnicy Meki Chrystusowey w roznych kollegiatach krakowskich y w kosciele archiprezbyteralnym Panny Maryi w poscie przez kilka lat miane, a potym na wszystkie dni caley Quadragezymy rozlozone (Cracow: Seminarium Biskupiego Akademickiego, 1767).

Katedra Krakowska (Cieszyn: Karol Prohaska, 1859).

Katedra Kujawska przez (Cracow, 1767/Cieszyn: Karol Prohaska, 1860).

Katedra Kijowska. (Cieszyn: Karol Prohaska, 1861).

Katedra Kijonska: Roku paskiego 1767 wydana w Krakowie w drukarni Seminarium biskupiego akademickiego a teraz na nowo przedrukowana, ed. Jan Radwanski (Cieszyn: Karol Prochaska, 1861).

literature

Anna Kulczycka, “Bóg, nieskonszone dobro nasze’ – Kasjan Korczynski OFMConv’, in: Wielcy kaznodzieje Krakowa, ed. Kazimierz Panús (Wydawnictwo Unum, 2006), 275-288.

 

 

 

 

Castro, José de San Pedro de Alcántara (18th century)

OFM. Spanish friar and theologian. Active in the San Pablo province around 1797.>>

editions

Apologia de la Theología Escholástica. Opera postuma, 2 Vols. (Segovia: Imprenta de Espinosa, 1796). Available via Google Books.

literature

AIA 24 (1925), 190-197; Manuel de Castro, Bibliografía de las bibliografias franciscanas españolas e hispanoamericanas, Publicaciones de Archivo Ibero-Americano (Madrid: Ed. Cisneros, 1982), 102 (no. 225); LThK, 2 (1994), 974.

 

 

 

 

Catharina de Bologna (1413-1463), sancta

Poor Clare from Bologna. Received a courtly education at the court of the princes of Este in Ferrara. Around 1427/28, she came under the spiritual influence of a religious women called Lucia, who lead a community of young women. During this period, Catharina experienced a religious crisis, and seems to have suffered ‘diabolical’ illusions. In 1432, Catharina and several other members of Lucia’s community entered the order of Poor Clares. She became responsible for the training of novices. In 1456, she established a new convent of Poor Clares in Bologna, and remained there as Abbess until her death on 9 March 1463. During her adult life, Catharina received many visions and revelations, and became renowned for her sanctity. She wrote several Latin and Italian works, such as the Rosarium Metricum de Mysteriis Passionis Christi Domini et de Vita B. Marie Virginis, and several Italian works (in prose and verse) on devotional and pious issues. Her most important work seems Le armi necessarie alla battaglia spirituale (1483), composed for female novices. Catharine was canonised in 1712 by pope Clement XI.

editions

Rosarium Metricum de Mysteriis Passionis Christi Domini et de Vita B. Marie Virginis>>>>

Le armi necessarie alla battaglia spirituale (Bologna, 1470/Bologna, 1511/Bologna, 1536/Bologna, 1654 etc./Bologna, 1900/Florence, 1922 [partial]). A Latin translation was made by J. Ant. Flaminius d’Imola, as the Sermones ad Sacras Virgines (Bologna, 1522/Bologna, 1653). French, Spanish, and Portuguese translations followed. The Portuguese translation appeared in Marco de Lisbon’s Las Chronicas de la Orden de los Frayles Menores (Lisbon, 1615) III, Liber IV, chapters 36-46. [The work became known after the death of Catharina, and received a series of editions in Italy, until 1775. In order to properly fight the spiritual battle, the soul needs seven weapons: diligence, defiance of the self, full confidence in God, memory of Christ’s passion, memory of death, memory of heavenly rewards, memory/knowledge of Scripture. For further perfection, she recommends a spirit of prayer, frequent communion, devotion to Mary.]

vitae

G. Grassetti, Vita della B. Caterina da Bologna aggiuntovi Le arme necessarie alla battaglia spirituale composte da detta Beata (Bologna, 1654/Rome, 1712/Bologna, 1724); AASS March II (Antwerp, 1668), 34-88 & AASS March II (Paris-Rome, 1865), 36-89

literature

Sbaralea, Supplementum (ed. Rome, 1908) I, 201f.; L.-M. Nuñez, La Santa nella storia, nelle lettere e nell’arte (Bologna, 1912); E. Henrion, ‘Una educatrice francescana del Quattrocento, Caterina de’Vigri e il trattato delle armi spirituali’, Vita e Pensiero 18 (1927), 486-495; DSpir II, 288-290.

See for more information the Franciscan Women Internet Database.

 

 

 

 

Cayetano de Madrid (second half 18th century)

OFM>>>

manuscripts

Compendio histórico de la vida, virtudes y milagros de Fr. Francisco de Cogolludo, Confesor Religioso Profeso de N. P. S. Francisco, en la mas estrecha observancia de San Pedro de Alcántara, en la Provincia de San Josef en Castilla la Nueva. escrita por fray Cayetano de Madrid, hijo de la misma provincia: Madrid, Nac. 1840. Now also accessible via the Biblioteca Digital Hispánica [See the url http://bdh.bne.es/bnesearch/biblioteca/Compendio%20hist%C3%B3rico%20de%20la%20vida,%20virtudes%20y%20milagros%20de%20Fr.%20Francisco%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20de%20Cogolludo,%20Confesor%20Religioso%20Profeso%20de%20N.%20P.%20S.%20Francisco,%20en%20la%20mas%20estrecha%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20observancia%20de%20San%20Pedro%20de%20Alc%C3%A1ntara,%20en%20la%20Provincia%20de%20San%20Josef%20en%20Castilla%20la%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20Nueva.%20%20%20/qls/Cayetano%20de%20Madrid%20(O.%20F.%20M.)/qls/bdh0000109366;jsessionid=5751FACA7CFD128E586F90A491C48712 ]

literature

Castro, Madrid, no. 100; Fidelis de Lejarza, `La Huella Franciscana en Cogolludo', AIA, 10 (1950), 41-48.

 

 

 

 

Casimir de Toulouse (c. 1633-1674)

OFMCap. French friar from the Toulouse province. Studied in Millau, where he apparently had a narrow escape from death during a row with protestant opponents (1663). Was elected lector of philosophy at the Narbonne convent in 1666, and held further teaching positions in Montpellier and Perpignan. His most famous philosophical work, the Atomi peripateticae (1674), adopts modern atomist perceptions within a renewed Aristotelian framework. The work was discussed by contemporary philosophers and roused suspician among ecclesiastical authorities. Volumes II to VI eventually were placed on the index (November 1680). Aside from philosophical works, Casimir also wrote hagiographical texts.

editions

La Vanité Combatue Et Surmontée Par La Fille-Forte. Ou la vie penitente et seraphique de soeur Jacquette Bachelier, capucine (Béziers: Iacques Barbut, 1669/Second edition Béziers: J. Barbut , 1678).

Atomi peripateticae sive tum veterum tum recentiorum Atomistarum placita, 6 vols. (Béziers: Henricus Martel, 1674). At least partly available via Google Books and via Gallica. The work is divided as follows: Vol. 1: logica; Vol. 2: physicae prima pars; Vol. 3: physicae secunda pars; Vol. 4: physicae tertia pars; Vol. 5: metaphysica intentionalis; Vol. 6: metaphysica realis.

Le triomphe de la croix, sur les attraits de la souveraineté ou la vie du Duc de Modène, capucin (Béziers: Chez Iacques Barbut, imprimeur & marchand libraire, 1674). Cf. Lexicon Capuccinum, 831-832.

L'Illustre pénitente de Béziers, ou l'Histoire admirable de Mlle Bachelier (...) (Rouen: Vve L. Behourt, 1680).

literature

Bernard de Bologne, Bibliotheca Scriptorum ordinis minorum capuccinorum (Venice 1747); Apollinaire de Valence, Bibliotheca Fr. Min. Capuccinorum provinciarum Occitanae et Aquitaniae (Rome, 1894); Apollinaire de Valence, Toulouse chrétienne: Histoire des capucins, 3 vols.; Hurter, Nomenclator, II, col. 46, n. 1; DThCat II, 1821-1822;>>> Thomas de Lezo, La filosofia del P. Casimiro de Toulouse, O.F.M. Cap. (1633-1673) (Rome: Pontificiae Universitatis Gregoriana, 1955); Lexicon Capuccinum, 160-161; R. Ariew, `Casimir de Toulouse', in: The Dictionary of Seventeenth-Century French Philosophers, ed. L. Foisneau (Bristol, 2005); Roger Ariew, Descartes Among the Scholastics (Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2011), 159.

 

 

 

 

Caesarius de Spira (d. 1229)

Studied in Paris, student of Conrad of Speyer. Travelled to the Holy Land in 1217 (crusade) where he was accepted into the Franciscan order by friar Elias (then provincial minister of the Holy Land). Returned to Italy with Francis of Assisi in 1220 and involved with the composition of the regula (non bullata). Was sent as provincial minister to Germany, but returned to Italy in 1223 and was relieved of his function on his own request. According to Angelo Clareno, he was imprisoned during the rule of friar Elias.

editions:

Some scholars (for instance Michael Cusato) have ascribed to Caesarius the Sacrum commercium beati Francisci cum Domina Paupertate, which has been edited in several omnibus editions of early Franciscan sources. See also under Sacrum commercium in the list of anonymi elsewhere on this site.

literature:

C. Eubel, Geschichte der ober-deutschen Minoriten Provinz (Wü..., 1886); AF, Vol. 1, 4-41; Chronica Fratris Jordani, ed. Boehmer, Collection d’études et de documents sur l’histoire réligieux et littéraire du Moyen Age VI (Paris, 1908), 8-32; Golubovich, Biblioteca bio-bibliografica della Terra santa I (Quaracchi, 1906), 117-119; A. Van den Wyngaert, ‘Césaire de Spire’, DHGE XII, 197-198; J.G. Plöger, J. Schneider (eds.), Heilige im Heiligen land (Wü...., 1982); B. Vollot, ‘Césaire de Spire et la première Règle de Saint François’, Franziskanische Studien 73 (1991), 310-323: Michael Cusato, The Early Franciscan Movement (1205-1239): History, Sources and Hermeneutics (Spoleto: CISAM, 2009), chapters seven and eight.

 

 

 

 

Caesarius Magati (Cesare Magati/Liberatus a Scandiano, 1579-1647)

OFMCap. Born in Scandaiano in a well-to-do family of landowners. In 1596, Cesare began medical studies at the university of Bologna, under Giulio Cesare Claudini, Flaminio Rota and Giambattista Cortesi. He finished these initial medical and philosophical studies in late March 1597, and traveled to Rome, to work in the Ospedale S. Maria della Consolazione, to obtain experience in the treatment of illnesses and wounds. There he came to work under the innovative surgeon/doctor Ludovico Settale. After a number of years, he returned to Scandiano, wishing to settle there as a doctor/surgeon, but an encounter with the Viscount Ezio Bentivoglio meant that he was able to travel to Ferrara under the viscount's protection and that he could continue his studies. After an examination, he was accepted into the teaching body of Ferrara university in 1612, and became Professor of surgery, lecturing in this capacity until 1617/18. In 1613, he also became the first surgeon of the Arcispedale Sant'Anna in Ferrara. During these years, Cesare was able to continue experimenting, which also led to the publication, in 1616 of the first edition of his De rara medicatione vulnerum. Early 1618, Cesare became seriously ill, and he decided to retire to the monastic life. He joined the Capuchins on 11 April 1618, making his profession on 11 April 1619, taking up the name Liberato da Scandiano. From Ravenna, he went to Cesena, and later to Bologna. During his life as a Capuchin monk, he continued his medical-academic career and with his publications, in part also to fend off criticism, and his order superiors sent him to several parts of the country to treat important lay and clerical people, among which figured for instance Cardinal Rinaldo d'Este and Alfonso d'Este (son of duke Francesco I d'Este). Cesare/Liberato suffered himself from kidney problems, and he was operated upon in Bologna in the Summer of 1647. The surgeon there found huge kidney stones and other problems, and Cesare died shortly afterwards after much suffering on 9 September 1647 in the friary of Monte Calvario (Auronzo). His medical instruments, which for a considerable time were kept by his Capuchin monastery, eventually ended up in the Istituto Ortopedico of Bologna.

editions

De rara medicatione vulnerum, 2 Vols. (Venice, 1616/ second edition Venice, 1676). A German version appeared in Nuremberg in 1733 with commentaries of later practitioners. This work, in itself quite scholastic in setup, deals with his method of treating various wounds, and descibes in the second book a large number of case studies, as well as purging and suture techniques. Several editions can now be accessed via the digital collections of the University Library of Ghent, Google Books and Archive.org.

Considerationes medicinae (Bologna, 1637). Invisaged as the first volume of three, but the other two did not appear. This first volume goes in part back to his previous work and defends Cesare's methods against critiscms, for instance those leveled by the German Daniel Sennert in Practica medicinae liber primus, which includes a section called 'De Caesaris Magati et Ludovici Septalii curandi vulnera methodi judicium'.

literature

Carlo Castellani & Nicola Latronico, L'attività clinico-medica di Cesare Magati con sedici consulti inediti (Milan: STEDAR, 1959); Ladislao Münster & Giovanni Romagnoli, Cesare Magati Lettore di chirurgia nello studio ferrarese primo chirurgo dell'arcispedale di S. Anna e il suo geniale e razionale metodo per la cura delle ferite (Bologna: Università degli studi di Ferrara, 1968); Eligio Maria Grasselli, ‘Cesare Magati cappuccino e medico chirurgo alla corte estense. Un gigante fra le ombre del passato’, in: I mille volti della Modena ducale, 291-302; Anna Rita Capoccia, ‘Magati, Cesare (Liberato da Scandiano)’, DBI 67 (2006), 313a-315a; Patrizia Fughelli & Elisa Maraldi, Conversando su Caesar Magatus, frate Cappuccino e medico. (1577-1647), to be found on: http://www.griseldaonline.it/camporesi/index.html

 

 

 

 

Cajetanus Maria Bergomensis (Gaetano Maria da Bergamo/Migliorini, 1672-1753)

OFMCap. Italian friar, scientist, philosopher, preacher and spiritual author. He joined the order after completing juridical and theological studies. For his biography see he article of Dario Busolini in DBI 51 (1998).

editions

Pratico esame sopra il vizio detto volgarmente dell'osteria (...) (Borgo san Leonardo: Giovanni Santini, 1728).

L'uomo apostolico istruito nella sua vocazione al confessionario (Bergamo, 1726/ etc. etc./Venice; Baglioni, 1750/Padua: Stamperia del Seminario, 1773/ etc.). More than eleven editions of this work were issued before the death of the author. Others followed. Several of these can now be accessed via Archive.org, Google Books and other digital portals.

L'uomo apostolico istruito nella sua vocazione al pulpito per il ministero della Sacra eloquenza. Opera di fr. Gaetano Maria da Bergamo cappuccino (..) (Venice, 1729), dedicated to Pope Benedict XIII. This work is accessible via Archive.org and other digital portals.

Both of these works, which together form an educational trajectory for lay believers and priests, were issued together in an edition prepared by F. Burghausen in mains in 1750.

Pensieri ed affetti sopra la Passione di Gesù Cristo per ogni giorno dell'anno (Bergamo, 1733/Parma: Francesco Borsi, 1758/ etc. etc.). This is probably the best-known of Gaetano's ascetical works, and saw more than 66 editions (several of which can now be accessed via the usual digital portals on the internet), including translated versions in German, Dutch, French, Spanish, English and Portuguese. An early 20th century English translation appeared as: Thoughts and Affections on the Passion of Jesus Christ for Every Day of the Year: Taken from Holy Scripture and the Writings of the Fathers of the Church (Benziger brothers, 1905). A partial modern French translation is available in Ivan Gobry, Mystiques franciscains (Perpignan: Artège Editions, 2013), 215ff.

Pensieri ed affetti sopra i misterj ed altre feste occorrenti per l'anno e le novene di Natale, Pentecoste, Assunzione e Concezione di Maria Vergine: esposti con le sentenze della Divina Scrittura e de' santi padri (...) (Parma: Francesco Borsi, 1758).

Riflessioni sopra l'opinione probabile (Brescia, 1739).

La morale evangelica predicata (Padova, 1743). Dedicated to Pope Benedict XIV.

Esercizj di virtù ad onore di s. Giuseppe da Leonessa dell'ordine de' frati minori Capuccini di s. Francesco: da praticarsi in qualunque tempo dell'anno (Giacomo Turlino, 1746).

Meditationes supra la passione. Translated as: Zamyslenia nad cierpiacym Panem i soba samym, Rozwazania na Wielki Post. Przeklad i opracowanie: Salezy Kafel (Cracow: Wydawnictwo M, 2007).

La morale evanglica predicata da Fr. Gaetano Maria da Bergamo Cappuccino e dal medesimo dedicata alla santità di nostro sigore Papa Benedetto Quartodecimo, 4th Ed. (Padua, 1743/Padua: Nella Stamperia del Seminario, 1762). The 1762 edition is accessible via Google Books.

L'umiltà del cuore ideata in pensieri, ed affetti ad eccitarne la pratica (...) (Venice: Giovanni Battista Recurti, 1739/Venice: Giovanni Battista Recurti, 1745/Bassano: Remondini, 1781/ 1821 etc.). Most of editions are accessible via Google Books. A 20th-century English translation appeared as Humility of Heart, ed. Herbert Alfred Vaughan (Tan Books and Publishers, 1944).

Il cappuccino ritirato per dieci giorni in sè stesso, o sia, Esercizii spirituali aggiustati ad uso de' frati Cappuccini di s. Francesco (Venice: Giambattista Regozza, 1730/Corbetta, 1845). At least these two and possibly others are nowadays accessible via Archive.org and Google Books. A Latin version of this work appeared as: Capucinus solitarius per decem dies meditans sive exercitia spiritualia accommodata ad usum F.F. Minorum S.P. Francisci Capucinorum (Joannis Jacobi Vötter, 1755).

Novena ad onore della vergine S. Chiara: esposta alle R.R.M.M. cappuccine ad uso ancora di tutte le religiose del serafico istituto da F. Gaetano Maria da Bergamo cappuccino(...) (Giovanni Tevernin, 1747).

Due pratiche di umiltà ad isfuggire il tremendo giudizio d'Iddio che sono di non giudicare gli altri ed attendere a giudicare noi stessi (?/Tipografia Corbetta, 1844).

Motivi di eccitamento dell'umiltà del cuore: estratti dalla Divina Scrittura e da' Santi Padri (?/Tipografia Corbetta, 1844).

La virtù della fede praticata dalla beatissima Vergine Maria e proposta alla imitazione de' suoi divoti (?/Tipografia Corbetta, 1844).

Lettere

Il Miserere esposto in pensieri, ed affetti di umilta, e penitenza (...) (Bassano: Tipografia Remondiniana, 1797). This edition is accessible via Google Books.

Many of his works have been collected in: Opere del p. f. Gaetano Maria da Bergamo, ed. A. Viscardi, 12 Vols. (Roma: Arcangelo Casaletti, 1766-1780/Reprint Mainz, 1838-1846). Several volumes can be accessed via Google Books, Archive.org and other digital portals.

literature

Alessandro Viscardi da Bergamo, Notizie storiche intorno alla vita, studi e libri mandati alla luce dal P. Gaetano da Bergamo (Rome, 1776); Ilarino da Milano, Biblioteca dei frati minori cappuccini di Lombardia (Florence, 1937), 119-138; DThCat VI, 985-987; M. Neumayr, Das Schriftpredigt im Barok (Paderborn, 1938), passim; Metodio da Nembro, ‘Gaetano Maria da Bergamo nel Settecento religioso italiano’, Italia Francescana 25 (1950), 34-43, 106-120; Enciclopedia Cattolica V, 1846-1847; LexCap., 291-292; Catholicisme IV, 1695-1696; DSpir VI, 48-53; C. Cargnoni, ‘Antilogie teologiche e ascetiche di Gaetano da Bergamo in un opuscolo inedito di Viatore da Coccaglio’, Collectanea Franciscana 72 (1972), 69-85; Dario Busolini in DBI 51 (1998); Manuele Colombo, ‘Contro il probabilismo sistema. Lettere di Gaetano da Bergamo a Pietro Ballerini (1734-1738)’, Rivista di storia della Chiesa in Italia 62 (2008), 81-111.

 

 

 

 

lemma

Cajetanus Martinellus (Gaetano Martinelli, d. after 1795)

literature

OFMConv.

Marco Marcacci, ‘Martinelli, Gaetano, conv. (d. post 1795)’, Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz 8 (2009), 332.

 

 

 

 

Caldes (fl. 1446)

Spanish friar. Confessor of princess Maria of Aragon. Caldes wrote for her the Exercici de la Santa Creu, which was finished on 20 August 1446. In 1683, the work received a vernacular reworking.

editions

Exercici de la Santa Creu, ed. F. Francesch Marçal (Mallorca: Francesch Oliver, 1683). Accessible via Google Books.

literature

J.M. Bover, Biblioteca de escritores baleares (Palma de Mallorca, 1868) I, 142-143 (no. 201); I. Rodríguez, ‘Autores espirituales españoles en la edad media’, Repertorio de historia de las ciencias eclesiasticas en españa 1 (siglos iii-xvi) (Salamanca, 1967), 284.

 

 

 

 

Caritas Pirckheimer (1467-1532)

Poor Clare from Eichstädt, and the sister of Klara and Willibald Pickheimer (all members of a well-to-do and erudite patrician family). Her secular name was Barbara. At the age of 12, she came in the care of the Nürnberg Poor Clares, where she took her profession at the age of sixteen, taking the name Caritas. In 1502/3, she became abbess of the Nürnberg St. Clare convent, a position that she kept for twenty years. Was noted for her humanist learning (like the other members of the Pirckheimer family) and, partly through the contacts of her humanist brother Willibald, she got acquainted with several leading humanists of her time (notably Conrad Celtis), with whom she exchanged several on a variety of letters. Her erudition was acknowledged by Erasmus in his colloquy Abbatis et eruditae. Caritas also became an intimate spiritual friend of Sixtus Tucher, prior of the St. Lawrence, with whom she kept up an interesting correspondence. In 1525, the city council of Nürnberg introduced the Lutheran reformation, which lead to severe conflicts with Caritas, who did accept a reformation of the convent life along Lutheran lines. After a meeting between Melanchton and Caritas (brokered by Willibald), both of whom seemed to have been impressed by each other’s intelligence and moral integrity, a compromise was reached, leaving the remaining sisters in peace after Lutheranism had conquered the town. Nevertheless, it meant a great loss of income, and it was no longer possible to celebrate Mass, to hear confession, to go to communion and to hear sermons in the Catholic vein. She documented her struggle for the convent and her views on the relative merits of the old and new religion in her Denkwürdigkeiten. Aside from this work, she left behind an important Gebetbuch, and many letters.

editions

Caritas Pirckheimer Quellensammlung, ed. Josef Pfanner et.al. 3 Vols. (Landshut, 1961-1967) [containing her Denkwürdigkeiten, her prayer book and her letters] A large part of her correspondence is also published in the Opera Omnia (Frankfurt, 1610) of her friar Willibald Pirckheimer. Her Denkwürdigkeiten is also published separately in Die Denkwürdigkeiten, ed. C. Höfler (Bamberg, 1852) and again in Die Denkwürdigkeiten, ed. F. Renner & G. Deichstetter (St. Ottilien, 1982)

literature

E. Münch, Caritas Pirckheimer, ihre Schwestern und Nichten (Nürnberg, 1826); W. Loose, Aus dem Leben der Caritas Pirckheimer nach ihren Briefen, Diss. (Dresden, 1870); Fr. Binder, Caritas Pirckheimer. Äbtissin von St. Clara zu Nürnberg (Freiburg i. Breisgau, 1873); Georg Pickel, ‘Geschichte des Klaraklosters in Nürnberg’, BBKG 19 (1913), 145-172, 193-211, 241-259; H. Riesch, Frauengeist der Vergangenheit: Caritas Pirckheimer (Freiburg i. Breisgau, 1921); S. Kasbauer, Caritas Pirckheimer, eine Heldin des Glaubens (Landshut, 1932); L. Weismantel, Die Letzten von Sankt Claren (Freiburg i. Breisgau, 1940); Johannes Kist, Charitas Pirckheimer. Ein Frauenleben im Zeitalter des Humanismus und der Reformation (Bamberg, 1948); Dieter Harmening, ‘Eine unbekannte Handschrift aus dem Klarakloster zu Nürnberg mit einer Briefnotiz über Charitas Pirckheimer (1481)’, JFLF 32 (1972), 45-54; Caritas Pirckheimer, 1467-1532. Eine Ausstellung der Katholischen Stadtkirche Nürnberg 1982, ed. Lotte Kurras & Franz Machilek (Munich, 1982); G. Krabbel, Caritas Pirckheimer, ein Lebensbild, 5th Edition (Munich, 1982); Caritas Pirckheimer. Ordensfrau und Humanistin - ein Vorbild für die Ökumene. Festschrift zum 450. Todestag, ed. Georg Deichstetter (Cologne, 1982)

See for more recent information our database see our Franciscan Women Internet Database (http://franwomen.sbu.edu/franwomen/default.aspx)

 

 

 

 

Celestinus Bergomensis (Celestino da Bergamo/dei Corleoni, 1568-1635)

Active as preacher and lector in the Bressanone province. Known for his historical and hagiographical works.

editions

Vita e martiro dei SS. Fermo e Rustico nobili bergamaschi (Bergamo, 1606).

Historia quadripartita di Bergamo e suo territorio, nato gentile e renato cristiano, 4 Vols (Bergamo: Valerio Ventura, 1617). The first volume is accessible via the digital collections of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek and via Google Books.

Breve ragguaglio dei Conventi Cappuccini di Bergamo (Brescia, 1622).

Vita di S. Patrizio apostolo d'Irlanda (Brescia, 1622).

Breve ragguaglio dell'origine e progresso della Madonna della Fontana fuor di Rumano, e dell'apparizione di san Difendo Martire per liberare dalla peste la Terra suddetta: estratto dalla seconda parte dell'Istoria Quadripartita di Bergamo raccolta per F. Celestino sacerdote cappuccino (1746)?

Storia del monastero di Pontida, ed. Antonio Alessandri (Bergamo, 1876).

literature

Bernardino da Bologna, Bibliotheca Scriptorum OFMCap, 65; Sbaralea, Supplementum I, 197; Juan a San Antonio, Bibliotheca Universa Franciscana O, 262; Valdemiro, Cappuccini Bergamaschi, 73-75; Ilarino, Biblioteca dei Cappuccini Lombardi, 89-93; Lexicon Capuccinum, 286f (with additional references).

 

 

 

 

Celestinus de Monte Marsani (Célestin de Mont-de-Marsan, d. 1650)

OFMCap. Lector of mathematics and philosophy, possibly teaching in Messina.

editions

R.P. Coelestini, a Monte-Marsano, provinciae Aquitaniae concionatoris capucini, Clauis Dauid, siue Arcana scripturae sacrae opus vniversis divinae literaturae studiosis planè necessarium (Lyon: Philip Borde, Laurence Arnaud, & Claude Rigoud, 1659). Accessible via Google Books.

literature

DThCat II, 2064 

 

 

 

 

Celestinus de Oddis (Celestino de Oddis/Celestino Oddi, fl. c. 1600)

OFMCap.

literature

Rosario Moschea, ‘Il commento al ‘De Sphaera’ di p. Celestino de Oddis’, in: Francescanesimo e cultura nella provincia di Mesina, 187-106.

 

 

 

 

Celestinus de Soissons (Célestin de Soissons, fl. 17th cent.)

OFM. Moralist

editions

Compendium theologiae moralis: in quo de scientia omnibus Sacerdotibus sacras peccatorum confessiones audituris necessaria tractatur (Paris: george Iosse, 1635/Paris: Michel Soly, 1635). Both editions are accessible via Google Books.

literature

DThCat II, 2064

 

 

 

 

Celsus Zanus (fl. 17th cent.)

Preacher.

editions

De rhetorica et poetica ecclesiastica et civili (Rome, 1643).

literature

Harry Caplan & Henry H. King, ‘Latin Tractates on Preaching: A Book-List’, The Harvard Theological Review 42:3 (Jul., 1949), 200.

 

 

 

 

Chatarinus de Veneto († after 1378)

Sent to a studium generale for a lectorate course by his Venetian superiors (ca. 1322). Degree studies at Paris (at least until 1335). Lector in Naples (mentioned in 1343) and Bologna. Provincial minister (Marchia Tarvinia). Guardian in Venice in 1378. Author?

literature

C. Piana, Chartularium, AF, 11 (1970), 14-15, n. 19.

 

 

 

 

Cherubinus de Aurelia (Chérubin d'Orléans d. 1697)

OFMCap. Member of the Touraine province. Astronomer.

literature

Lexicon Capuccinum (1951), 142.

 

 

 

 

Cherubinus de Maurienne (Chérubin de Maurienne/Alexandre Fournier, 1566-1610)

OFMCap. Missionary and collaborator of Francisco de Sales. Religious controversialist.

editions

Several letters of Chérubin have been included in A. Pératé, 'La mission de François de Sales dans le Chablais. Documents inédits tirés des archives du Vatican', Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire 6 (1886), 333-415.

literature

Abbé Truchet, Vie du père Chérubin de Maurienne de l'ordre des frères mineurs capucins (Chambéry, 1880). Available via BnF Gallica; DThCat II, 2360-2361; Jean de Gognin, 'Un ami et collaborateur de saint François de Sales, le Père Chérubin de Maurienne, capucin', Études franciscaines (1935), 14-80,

 

 

 

 

Cherubinus de Spoleto (Cherubino da Spoleto/da Siena/da Negroponte, 1414 - 1484)

OMObs. Would have been born in 1414 on the Greek isle of Negroponte (Eubea), then under Venetian control. Was taught by a Friar Minor in a local grammar school. Entered the Franciscan order in Spoleto in 1432. Became active as a preacher with a reputation for appreciating profane poetry and related forms of secular literature. After rebukes from within the order (notably by Giovanni Buonvisi da Lucca), Cherubino started to model his sermons on the homiletic examples of Bernardino da Siena (in one of his own ‘work’ manuscripts, Cherubino copied down anonymous sermons, alongside of sermons by Roberto Caracciolo, Giacomo della Marca, Antonio da Bitonto et.al. In his early preaching career, he also made abbreviations of Bernardino da Siena’s sermons. Cf. Cenci, 1971, p. 640). Between 1441 and 1484, he embarked on long preaching tours throughout the Italian peninsula. In his sermons, as well as in his other pastoral activities, he promoted Eucharist devotion, campaigned for papal recognition indulgences for praying the Office of the Virgin (la corona francescana mariana), and established a series of confraternities to this purpose. Also stimulated the solemn bestowal of last sacrament rites to ill people (lest they should die unshriven), engaged in social work (including the foundation of a Monte di pietà in Prato (1476), and the distribution of food in Perugia (1457-58)), and was involved with the (not always competely successful) implementation ow new community statutes and sumptuary laws in Assisi (1452/1456), Foligno (1454), and Perugia (1458). On 12 May 1457, pope Calixt II appointed Cherubino alongside of Antonio da Montefalco as crusade preacher (against the Turcs. See also Bullarium franciscanum II, nos. 305 etc.). Most famous are Cherubino's quaresimal and Advent preaching cycles in Siena (1477 & 1478), Assisi (1479 and 1480, as well as possibly Advent 1478), Perugia (1479 & 1480), and Ferrara (Advent, 1482). On 19 November 1473, Sixtus IV made him apostolic preacher, giving Cherubino free range to preach wherever he wanted, with the help of four friars of his own choosing. In 1482, he became involved with the immacuate conception controvery, which had started again after remarks made by the Dominican Vincenzo Bandelli da Castelnuovo. Cherubino defended in this the Franciscan position along Scotist lines. 1484, he was elected definitor for his order (on the general chapter of Alvern). He died in the Santa Maria degli angeli convent, near Assisi, on the fourth of August, 1484. He is commemorated as a beatus in the Franciscan Martyrologium.

manuscripts

De Eruditione Liberorum/Tractatus de Cura Filiorum: Naples, Naz. VIII.AA.30 ff. 79a-87d; Terni, Biblioteca Comunale 43 ff. 220v-232r. In fact a cluster of thematic sermons.

Tractatus de Honore Parentum: Naples, Naz. VIII.AA.30 ff. 87d-93c [sermons, part of his Sermones Quadragesimales See: Cenci, Napoli (1971), 771ff.].

Tractatus de Obedientia: Assisi, Biblioteca Comunale Cod. c. ff. 127v-135v. [sermons, part of his Sermones Quadragesimales].

De Honore Templorum: Naples, Naz. VIII.AA.30 ff. 93c-95c [sermons, part of his Sermones Quadragesimales].

ascribed but not secure, the anonymus Tractatus de re publica: Arch. di Stato dell'Aquila, MS 60. [Cf. Cenci, Napoli (1971),60f, 770).

Tractatus de Temptationibus pro Personos Religiosis et Devotis: Assisi Biblioteca Comunale 443 ff. 127r-135v & 136r-146v. In fact clusters of sermons

Sermones Quadragesimales: Naples, Naz. V.H.378 ff. 135r-139v; VI.F.12 ff. 43r-48r; VIII.A.7; VIII.A.9; VIII.A.21; VIII.AA.20; VIII.AA.30. [sermons, part of his Sermones Quadragesimales]. For more of such ‘treatises’, see DBI XXIV, 451

Poems?: Milan, Biblioteca Ambrodsiana cod. Z 102 sup.

On letters and anecdotes, as well as on vernacular reworkings based on his writings, see DBI XXIV, 451-452, as well as .

spurious: Tractatus de fide:Verona, Biblioteca Communale, 517-519. This work probably based on the first six sermons of the published Sermones Quadragesimales.

editions

Sermones Quadragesimales, ed. Serafino da Mantua (s.l., ca. 1500?/Venice: Giorgio Arrivabene a Venezia, 1502/Venice, 1511). [Just like many other Observant friars, Cherubino’s Quadragesimal sermons have a strong didactic and catechetical character. In the 1502 Venice editions, 91 sermons are grouped together into small treatises on individual dogmatic, moral, and spiritual issues but following the liturgical calendar (much like the semons of Bernardino da Siena!), but this organisation is due to the editor who brought the work to press, and does not say much about the sequence of sermons in Cherubino's actual preaching career. The Sermones Quadragesimales also contain sermones ad status, specifically directed at the various social classes, and at women, youth, married people, city people etc.]

Regula di Vita Spirituale/Regola della Vita Spirituale (Florence, 1477/Florence: Francesco Dino di Iacopo Fiorentino, 1487/Florence, 1490); Regola della Vita Spirituale, ed. F. Zambrini (Imola, 1878); Sesta e settima regola spirituale: Orazione e mundificazione, ed. Mario Sensi, in: Mistici Francescani. Secolo XV, 451-505. [The Regola della Vita Spirituale, written before 1464, received at least 32 editions before the end of the nineteenth century. For the earliest editions, see also Gesamtkatalog der Wiegendrucke, nn. 6593-6613 & Indice generale degli incunaboli delleBiblioteche d'Italia, nn. 2725-2743 The work provides seven rules for a proper Christian life. These rules deal with proper and improper thoughts, affections, words, labours, conversations, prayer, and purity of conscience. These Regola, together with the Regola della vita matrimoniale, figure among the most important pedagogical-spiritual works in the Italian vernacular during the early modern period.]

Regola della Vita Matrimoniale (Florence, 1477); Regole della vita matrimoniale, ed. F. Zambrini & C. Negroni (Bologna, 1888) [comparable with the Regula della Vita Spirituale, with which it was sometimes printed together. Roberto Rusconi, DBIXXIV, 450: ‘…le fonti, l’ispirazione, il modo di argomentare delle due Regole trovano piena corrispondenza con gli orientamenti di fondo della predicazione francescana osservante quattrocentesca, in un approccio che racchiude la vita spirituale del laicato devoto italiano tra pulpito e confessionale, all’interno di un programma etico-didascalico che C. ricollega esplicitamente alla predicazione bernardiana.’ Gabriella Zarri (1986), 156-157: ‘…i coniugi, come insegna Cherubino, sono chiamati a una vita di devozione; nell’ambito della famiglia l’istruzione della moglie avviene sotto la guida del marito: l’uomo dovrà insegnare alla donna, se questa non li conosce, le preghiere e i commandamenti, dovrà educarla alla confessione e indurla a frequentare le prediche, leggere con lei libri spirituali. In accordo con l’orientamento della pastorale francescana e con il carattere essenzialmente etico della Regola matrimoniale i libri consigliati da Cherubino sono prevalentemente di carattere morale: il Trattato sopra i peccati mortali di sant’Antonino e la Quadriga spirituale di Nicolò da Osimo; il religioso non manca tuttavia di raccomandare la Regola della vita spirituale da lui stesso composta, introducendo così anche nella vita familiare gli indirizzi della devotio. Questo trattato è infatti ordinato a dettare alcuni principi ascetici a predisporre all’orazione, vocale e mentale. Non a caso i libri la cui lettura è consigliata in questa Regola rientrano decisamente nella linea devota: ‘buoni libri a legiere per una persona non litterata sono questi: Climaco, Specchio della croce, Il monte dell’oratione, Il libro della patientia.’ (…) Prive di carattere precettistico (…) le Regole di Cherubino da Spoleto presuppongono pur sempre una condizione della vita familiare che non sia solo irreprensibile dal punto di vista morale ma che preveda un impegno nell’esercizio spirituale. La scala del paradiso ha il suo primo gradino tra le pareti domestiche…’]

Vernacular reworkings of Cherubino's works have been gathered quite early in Conforto spirituale de’caminanti a porto di salute. Regole del vivere nel stato virginale e contemplativo. Regola e modo del vivere nel stato viduale. Versi devotissimi de l’anima inamorata in miser Jesu Christo (Venice: Melchior Sessa, 1505).

literature

Wadding, Annales Minorum (Quaracchi, 1933) XIV, 426-430; Sbaralea, Supplementum (ed. Rome, 1908) I, 201-203; Zawart, 291; DSpir II, 824-825; DThCat. XIV, 2549f; Z. Zafarana, ‘Per la storia relig. di Firenze nel Quattrocento...’, Studi medievali, s. 3, 9:2 (1968), 1022, 1098ff; Cenci, Napoli, >> L. Lazzerini, ‘Per latinos grossos...’. Studio sui sermoni mescidati', Studi di filol. ital. 29 (1971), 236, 266, 276f; M. Sensi, ‘Predicazione itinerante a Foligno nel sec. XV’, Picenum seraphicum 10 (1973), 160-165, 183, 186; Stanislao da Campagnola, ‘Influssi umanistici sul francescanesimo umbro’, in: L'umanesimo umbro. Atti del IX Convegno di studi umbri (Perugia, 1977), 289-92, 295; R. Rusconi, `Cherubino da Spoleto', DBI XXIV (Rome, 1980), 446-453; Gabriella Zarri, ‘La vita religiosa femminile tra devozione e chiostro: testi devoti in volgare editi tra il 1475 e il 1520’, in: I frati minori tra ‘400 e ‘500, Atti del XII Convegno Internazionale Assisi, 18-19-20 ottobre 1984 (Assisi, 1986), 125-168; passim; Bernadette Paton, Preaching Friars and the Civic Ethos: Siena, 1380-1480 (London, 1992), 67-69; L. Canonici, ‘Fra Cherubino da Spoleto predicatore...’, Studi Francescani, 92 (1995), 107-126; Mauro Donnini, ‘Sulla “Passio Domini nostri Yesu Christi” di Cherubino da Spoleto’, in: Studi sull'Umbria medievale e umanistica: in ricordo di Olga Marinelli, Pier Lorenzo Meloni, Ugolino Nicolini, ed. Mauro Donnino & Enrico Menestò (Spoleto, 2000), 219-238; Giuliana Italiani, ‘Sul De eruditione liberorum di Cherubino da Spoleto’, in: Studi sull'Umbria medievale e umanistica: in ricordo di Olga Marinelli, Pier Lorenzo Meloni, Ugolino Nicolini, ed. Mauro Donnino & Enrico Menestò (Spoleto, 2000), 239-252; E.D. Swaan, Regole della vita matrimoniale. Een huwelijkstraktaat van fra Cherubino uit ca. 1450 Thesis (Leyden University, 2000); Amyrose McCue Gill, “Not as Enemies, but as Friends’: Sanctioned Sex in Frate Cherubino's ‘Regola della vita matrimoniale‘, Quaderni d'italianistica 1 (2009), 27-43; Mauro Donnini, ‘Sulla 'Passio Domini nostri Yesu Christi' di Cherubino da Spoleto’, in: Idem, Humanae ac divinae litterae: scritti di cultura medievale e umanistica (Spoleto, 2013), 371-390.

 

 

 

 

Cherubinus de Udine (Cherubino Sandolino d’Udine, fl. 16th- early 17th cent.)

OFMCap. Born in 1530? Astronomer and mathematician.

editions

Thaumalemma cherubicum catholicum, universalia, et particularia continens instrumenta, ad omnes arcus, & horas Italicas, Bohemicas & Gallicas diurnas, atque nocturnas dignoscendas, & ad componenda per universum orbem earum multiformia horologia praesertim Italica exquisitissimum (...) (Venice: Rubertus Meiettus, 1598). Accessible via Google Books, via the digital collections of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, and via http://www.europeana.eu.

Nova horologiorum inventio continens instrumenta universalia, et particularia ad omnes, horas, dignoscendas (...) F. Cherubino Sandolino Utinense (..) (Venice: Apud Rubertum Meiethum, 1599/ Venice: apud Rubertum Meiettum, 1600).

literature

Lexicon Capuccinum 394.

 

 

 

 

Cherubinus Rijn (1570-1623)

OFMCap. Dutch friar.

literature

Hildebrand van Hooglede, ‘De eerste Hollandsche Kapucijnen: Br. Masseo Poenen of Poecen van Grave (1551/52-1622) en P. Cherubinus Rijn van Amersfoort (1570-1623)’, in: Idem, Miscellanea II, 1045-1051.

 

 

 

 

Cherubinus Senensis (Cherubino da Siena, fl. later fifteenth cent.)

OFMObs. Disciple of Bernardino da Siena and important author of spiritual texts for the Sienese laity. Cherubino da Siena is probably to be identified with Cherubino da Spoleto (see under that name)

manuscripts

Regole della vita spirituale:

De educatione puerum et liberorum: did not survive?

Regole della vita matrimoniale:

editions

Regole della vita spirituale (Florence, 1490)

Regole della vita matrimoniale, ed. F. Zambrini & C. Negroni (Bologna, 1888)

literature

Bernadette Paton, Preaching Friars and the Civic Ethos: Siena, 1380-1480 (London, 1992), 67-69

 

 

 

 

Christianus Borgsleben (Borxleben, ca. 1400-1484, Erfurt)

German friar. Active in Erfurt and the Saxon province during the in the 1450s and 1460s. Guardian in Nordhousen, Lector and Preacher; translator for John of Capistran during the latter's German touyrt. He was a lector at the Nordhausen friary in 1440, when he received the licence to preach and hear confession. In the Summer semester of 1446, he became lector principalis at the Franciscan studium in Leipzig, which was associated with the university. Hence, Christian was immatriculated at the university to go up for his theology degree. He was Sententiarius in December 1446 and reached in 1449 the licentiate of theology. In 1452, he acted as a translator for Giovanni da Capistrano, when the latter was on a preaching tour through the German lands. Somewhat later, Christianleft Leipzig for a teaching position elsewhere: he was lector sacrae pagina in Nordhausen in 1457. That same year, he was also custos of the Thuringia custody. He also became the confessor of Count Heinrich von Stolberg, and in 1461 he apparently accompanied the count on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, also in the company of rector of Erfurt University, Hunold von Plettenberg. This might have helped Borgsleben to secure for himself a position at Erfurt, for in 1464, he is at the Franciscan studium of Erfurt, where he immatriculated at the university as 'Doctor Cristianus Borgsleyben'. In 1471 temporarily back in Leipzig, where he taught until 1480 and where he oversaw the degree studies of Johannes Roethaw and Vitus von Eilenburg. In 1482 again in Erfurt, where he assisted in the promotion of Johannes Heymstede, who subsequently succeeded him as regent master. In 1484, he is again custos, this time in Nordhausen, where he became involved with Observant reforms. He died sometime thereafter at Erfurt (probably from the Plague) and was buried in the Franciscan friary. Christian had a great reputation as a preacher, also because of his translation activities for Giovanni da Capistrano. He was praized for his homiletic prowess by his fellow friar Conrad Wimpina (fl. 17th cent.), wrote about him: 'Christianus Burcksleve natione Hirimius, patria Bergensis, Ordinis Minorum, Studio Lipzensis, vir rarissimae profecto laudis, ingenio acuto, eloquio diserto. Cuius comitate pellecta universa Saxonica provincia eundem non aliter quam olim Capistranum concionantem admirabatur. Qui cum in Lipzensi Gymnasio susceptis Doctoralibus insigniis, etiam Erfordensem scholam non parum tam scholasticis quam ad vulgus sermonibus ornavisset, post multa ab eo eleganter et ingeniose edita etiam ibidem quievit relictis posteris opusculis subnexis: Super sententias lib. II. Disputatarum Quaest. lib. I. Orationum ad Clerum lib. I. Sermones de tempore & Sanctis libb. II. Sermones per Quadragesimam lib. I. Claruit temporibus Sixti P.P. quarti A.D. 1401. (Found and cited from Buchwald, 'Die Ars Praedicandi', Franziskanische Studien 8 (1921), 67-68.

manuscripts

Ars Praedicandi: Leipzig, Univ. Libr., 616 ff. 1-4 [a manuscript compiled by a practitioner who gathered model sermons, confession guidelines, an ars predicandi ascribed to Thomas Aquinas, the text of Christian Borgsleben and related texts]; Colmar, Bibl, Consistorialis 166 ff. 289v-291v

Quaestio: Görlitz Fol. 37 ff. 3a-9a [Inc: Utrum subiectum vel abstractum in scientia naturali habeat mobilitatem pro ratione subiectivalitatis. Et quod sic.; Expl: Et sic est finis huius Quaestionis editae et compilatae per Reverendum Patrum et Fratrem Christianum Borxleben Ordinis Fratrum Minorum S. Theologiae professorem eximium ac transscripta per Fratrem Georgium Iudicis eiusdem Ordinis sub Anno Dominicae Incarnationis 1478. Amen]

Passio>> See Franziskanische Studien 23 pp. 187-188.

editions

Georg Buchwald (ed.), `Die Ars Praedicandi des Erfurter Franziskaners Christian Borgsleben', Franziskanische Studien 8 (1921), 67-74 [interesting text with regard to the training of young preachers, with regard to preaching in the vernacular to the common people, and with regard to the obligations of lectors. The text was written during Christian's Erfurt period.]

literature

Brieger, Die theologischen Promotionen auf der Universität Leipzig 1428-1539 (Leipzig, 1890), 50; L. Lemmens, 'Das Franziskanerkloster zu Nordhausen', BGSF 1 (1908), 1, 21; L. Meier, Franz Stud., 20 (1933), 271-2; 274-5; Idem, Franz. Stud., 23 (1936), 187-188; Idem, Antonianum, 5 p. 343; Heribert Rossmann, ‘Christian v. Borxleben (Borgsleben) (1400-1484)’, Lexikon des Mittelalters II (1983), 1912; Bert Roest, “Ne Effluat in Multiloquium Et Habeatur Honerosus’: The Art of Preaching in the Franciscan Tradition’, in: Franciscans and Preaching. Every Miracle from the Beginning of the World Came about through Words, ed. Timothy Johnson, The Medieval Franciscans, 7 (Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2012), 403-404; Johannes Schlageter, ‘Franziskanische theologie des Mittelalters in der Saxonia’, in: Geschichte der Sächsischen Franziskanerprovinz, 1: Von den Anfängen bis zur Reformation, ed. Volker Honemann (Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2015), 514-515; Volker Honemann, ‘Das mittelalterliche Schrifttum der Franziskaner der Sächsischen Ordensprovinz unter besonderer Berücksichtigung deutschsprachiger Zeugnisse’, in: Geschichte der Sächsischen Franziskanerprovinz, 1: Von den Anfängen bis zur Reformation, ed. Volker Honemann (Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2015), 698-699.

 

 

 

 

Christianus Clericus (Chrestien Leclercq, 1641-after 1700)

OFMRec. Probably born in Bapaume (Pas-de-Calais). He entered the Franciscan Recollects in 1668. Following his formation and ordination as a priest, he departed as a missionary for Nouvelle France (Canada) in 1675, in the compagny of the new bishop P. Hennepin and several others. After his arrival in Quebec, Leclercq traveled onwards to Gaspésie, near the Micmac indigenous population. He apparently learned the indigenous langage and composed both a dictionary and a catechistic text with explanatory images. In 1680, he was sent back to France to obtain permission from the French provincial to create hospices in Quebec and Montréal. Late 1681, he was back in Quebec until ca. 1686, when he became the guardian of the Lens friary (Pas-de-Calais) and later, in 1700, of the S. Omer (St. Omaars) friary. His published works seem to date from after his return to Europe.

editions

Dictionary of the Micmac language and a catechism with explanatory images>>?.

Nouvelle Relation de la Gaspésie (Paris, 1691/Lyon, 1692). This work received an English translation as New Relation of Gaspesia: With the Customs and Religion of the Gaspesian Indians (Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1910). This English edition is accessible via Archive.org.

Premier établissement de la foy dans la Nouvelle France (Paris, 1691). A second edition appeared as Histoire des colonies françaises (Lyon, 1692). Deals with the missionary activities of the Recollects in Nouvelle France and attacks the actions of the Jesuits. Some scholars have voiced doubts about Chrestien's authorship of the work. The work is accessible via Early Canadiana Online [http://eco.canadiana.ca/view/oocihm.37255], via Gallica, via Archive.org, Répertoire du patrimoine culturel du Québec, and Google Books.

A new critical edition of Leclercq's works has appeared in 1987: L’œuvre de Leclercq, Édition critiques et philologique, ed. J. Leralu (Nevada: McGill University Press, 1987).

literature

Henri Arthur Scott, Nos anciens historiographes et autres études d’histoire canadienne (Levis: Cie. de Publication de Levis, 1930), passim; Catholic Encyclopedia IX, 109; A. Godbout, ‘Leclercq’, in: Centenaire de l’histoire du Canada, ed. F.-X. Garneau (Montréal, 1945), p. 269-290; Dict. Biogr. Franc., XX, 477-78; Dictionnaire biographique du Canada (Toronto, 1966) I, 449-452 [see also http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/le_clercq_chrestien_1E.html ]; Dictionnaire des lettres françaises. Le xviie s., ed. G. Grente (Paris, 1996), 723; R. Aubert, ‘Leclercq (Chrestien)’, DHGE XXX, 1474-1475.

 

 

 

 

Christianus de Hiddestorf (fl. late 14th-early 15th cent.)

Friar from Hiddesdorf. Lector at Magdeburg and subsequently degree student at the University of Erfurt (1396 bacc. biblicus), and shortly afterwards (96/98) Sententiarius. From this period probably stemm his still surviving Conclusiones sententiarum, which formulate his theological conclusions in poetic verses. In 1400, several charters attest that he was magister regens as successor of Johannes von Belgern. Apparently kept the regency for a long time, maybe until his death in 1420. During this period also active as itinerant preacher in the province [as can be seen in the explicit of MS Breslau I.F.742 f. 136a: `Finita est Passio (…) per Rev. Patrem Christianum de Hiddesdorf collecta et in Lubek in conventu Fratrum Minorum et in pluribus locis per eum populo praedicata.'] Among his students we can single out friars as Gottschalk Roede and Johannes Mutzel (both in the lectorate program. The latter eventually became lector secundarius in Hannover). His 1400 letter, in which he also refers to Gottschalk's completion of the lectorate course, he depicts the teachings in the Erfurt studium as part and parcel of convent life. The juniores & seniores of the friars were certainly involved with the activities if the students [See Meier, Antonianum, 10 (…), 64-65.] In his theological teachings, Hiddesdorf tried to incorporate Scotist elements, therewith steering the Franciscan teachings at Erfurt more in that direction. Hiddestorf's theological views would after his death still echo through in the controversy around the Wilsnacker Wunderblut affair, when the opponent of the Franciscans, The Domherr Heinrich Toke refered to Hiddestorf's alleged questions about the authenticity of the Wilsnacker blood host.

manuscripts

Conclusiones Sententiarum: Luneberg, Ratsbücherei, 2° 48 [Explicit: 'Et sic finis istarum Conclusionum, quas ego Frater Christianus de Hiddestorp in Erfordia Sacrae Theologiae Baccalaureus existens collegi et conscripsi diligenter fundamentum Magistri [Petri Lombardi] considerando, ad profectum et utilitatem omnium studentium pro tunc ibidem existentium. Amen.' See on his Sentences commentary further Meier, Antonianum, 14, pp. 68-9]

Comm. in Matthaeum: a.o. Braunschweig, Stadtbibliothek Cod. 141 ff. 14v-77r [See Meier, Antonianum, 14, pp. 158, 177-80. This fifteenth-century manuscript, which once belonged to the Friars Minor of Braunschweig, also contains Francis of Meyronnes’ Sermones de Eucharistia (ff. 1r-14r), an anonymus Tractatus de Septem Vitiis et Virtutibus/Tractatus de Remediis Septem Peccatorum Mortalium (ff. 82r-109v. Inc.: ‘Nota de septem mortalibus peccatis, quando sint venalia et quando mortalia et quid sit peccatum mortale. Peccatum mortale est secundum Augustinum spreto bono incommutabili bono commutabili adhaerere.’; Expl.: ‘Magis cara defuncto in vita poni in sepulchro cum eo bina et hoc illa habet pro maximo honore quod ipsa eligitur aliis derelictis.’), and a series of anonymous sermons (ff. 109v-292r. Cf. the enumeration of Ludger Meier, Antonianum 14 (1939), 161-165.)] None of these manuscripts apparently contain Hiddestorf's Matthew commentary in full. Cf. the edition of Meier. Schlageter (2015) suggests that the many citations of authoritative exegetes, additional questions and even citations from recent secular literature (even Petrarch) indicate that we are dealing with a magisterial commentary, yet that it cannot compare to the in-depth commentaries of Bonaventure or Olivi. But as these remarks are based on Meier's partial edition, this needs to be checked. Parts of Hiddestorf's Matthew commentary apparently found their way into the Quadragesimale quodditianum of Albert Hofeltinger (friar in the Upper Germany Province, and vice-guardian of Regensburg and later Nuremberg (1433).

Sermo de Passione [Held in the St. Catherine Church of Lübeck and at other places]: Breslau, I.F.742 ff. 120a-136a. Inc.: Omnis anima quae non fuit afflicta (…) Beatus Bernardus in Sermone de Passione Domini sic Dicit: Vigilate.']

Sermones: Munich Landesbibl. Lat. 9000 [=Clm 9000] >> These are sermons by Albert Hofeltinger on the basis of Christian von Hiddesdorf’s Matthew Commentary!

editions

Partial edition of the Matthew commentary can be found in L. Meier, Antonianum 14 (1939), 166ff.

literature

Ludger Meier, ‘Christianus de Hiddesdorf O.F.M. Scholae Erfordiensis Columna’, Antonianum 14 (1939), 43-76, 157-180; Idem, Die Barfüsserschule, 46-47; Kurt Ruh, 'Christian von Hiddestorf', Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters. Verfasserlexikon I (1978), 1221-1222; Heribert Rossmann, 'Christian von Hiddestorf, Franziskanertheologe (†1420)', Lexikon des Mittelalters II (1983), 1912; Johannes Schlageter, ‘Franziskanische theologie des Mittelalters in der Saxonia’, in: Geschichte der Sächsischen Franziskanerprovinz, 1: Von den Anfängen bis zur Reformation, ed. Volker Honemann (Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2015), 456-459

 

 

 

 

Christianus de Honnef (Christianus von Honnef, fl. c. 1500)

Member of the Franciscan convent of Seligenthal. Known for his catechism: Eyn schone Christliche underrichtung über die x gebot, die xii artikel des Christlichen geloiven, mit dem Pater noster und der Englischer grötzen, ouch alle Artikel der gemeiner bicht, wie man ieckliche sunden underscheiden sal. Alle punten bewyst mit der hilger schrift (Collen: Jaspar van Gennep, 1537) [dedicated to Duke William of Cleve, Gullik and Berghen, d. 1511. The work contains: Vater unser und Englischer Gruss; Symbolum; Beichte; 5 Sinne; Werke der Barmherzigkeit; 7 Gaben des hl. Geistes; 7 Sakramente; 7 Todsünden; 8 Seligkeiten; 9 fremde Sünden; Stumme Sünden; Himmelschreiende Sünden; Sünden gegen den hl. Geist; 10 Gebote; Beschluss]

literature

P. Bahlmann, Deutschlands katholische Katechismen bis zum Ende des sechzehnten Jahrhunderts (Münster, 1894), 25-28. 

 

 

 

 

Christianus de Kientzheim (Christian von Kientzheim, 1718 - after 1795)

OFMCap. Alsacian friar. Ascetical and catechetical author…

literature

DSpir II, 870-871.

 

 

 

 

Christianus de Northusen (Christian von Northausen, 15th cent.)

Active in Erfurt in 1468, where he compiled a series of Sermones quadragesimales, at the start of which can also be found some autobiographical statements.

manuscripts

Sermones quadragesimales: Hildesheim WB III E 5.

literature

Irene Stahl, Mittelalterliche Handschriften im Stadtarchiv Hildesheim, Mittelalterliche Handschriften in Niedersachsen: Kurzkatalog, 4 (Wiesbaden, 2001), 130f.

 

 

 

 

Christianus Schneider (1742-1824)

Born in Polom near Mikulov in Moravia from a German family but also fluent in the Czech language. He took his perpetual Franciscan vows on 12 August 1761 in Moravská Trebová, and absolved his theological studies in Olomouc. He preached in Prague and Brno among the German speaking population and in 1771 left for Rome, to undergo a missionary training. He was appointed to a missionary station in Egypt in 1772 for seven years. He stayed there in different places where Franciscans had missionary operations. From Egypt, he was commissioned to try to establish a new Franciscan missionary operation in Ethiopia in 1787. This venture failed, and by 1779 he was back in Cairo, from where he traveled to Southern Egypt (Girga), and later became perfect for the Egyptian mission as a whole (1792-1799). In February 1799, Christianus traveled back to Europe from Alexandria via Smyrna and Trieste. He traveled inwards to Prague and spent the last years of his life in Jindrichuv Hradec, where he died on 12 March, 1824. We now know that his Annotationes in Aegyptum/Kurze Lebens- und Reisebeschreibung eines Blinden mit verschiedenen Anmerkungen von Christian Schneider franciskaner Ordenspriester bohmischer Prowinz have survived. An indication of the work’s contents is provided in the appendix to Dospel’s 2011 article.

editions

A Tsjech translation of his Annotationes/Kurze Lebens- und Reisebeschreibung is provided in the 2011 study of Katerina Holanova mentioned below.

literature

Marek Dospel, ‘The Annotationes in Aegyptum (c. 1799): A Manuscript Penned by Czech Franciscan Missionary’, AFH 104 (2011), 285-297; Katerina Holanova, Kurze Lebens- und Reisebeschreibung eines Blinden mit verschiedenen Anmerkungen von Christian Schneider franciskaner Ordenspriester böhmischer Prowinz. Zivot a cesty Christiana Schneidera OFM (1742-1824) MA Thesis University of Budapest (2011). [Work written in the Tjech Language and accessibla via the url http://theses.cz/id/hmomkp/DP_Kateina_Holanov.pdf?furl=%2Fid%2Fhmomkp%2FDP_Kateina_Holanov.pdf;so=nx;lang=en;info=1;isshlret=FILIPI%3B;zpet=%2Fvyhledavani%2F%3Fsearch%3DPietro%20Filipi%26start%3D13 ]

 

 

 

 

Christianus Seuringhausen (f. mid 17th cent.)

OFMRec. Translated Bernard of Bessa's Speculum Disciplinae into German.

editions

Specvlvm Disciplinae Novitiorum, Das ist Zuchtspiegel der newen Geistlichen Personen Geschrieben durch (...) Bonaventuram (...) durch P. Christianum Seuringhausen [OFMRec] auß dem latein ins teutsch versetzt (Cologne: Wilhelm Firiessems, 1654)]

literature

Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters. Verfasserlexikon, 2nd. Ed. XI (2004), 241.

 

 

 

 

Christobaldus de Higuera (Cristóbal de Higuera/de la Higuera, fl. c. 1700)

OFM. Preacher in the Castilia province.

literature

AIA 28 (1968), 465; Manuel de Castro, Bibliografía de las bibliografias franciscanas españolas e hispanoamericanas, Publicaciones de Archivo Ibero-Americano (Madrid: Ed. Cisneros, 1982), 128 (no. 417); Bibliografía de autores españoles del siglo XVIII IV, no. 3266.

 

 

 

 

Christobaldus Delgadillo (Cristóbal Delgadillo, fl. ca. 1650)

OFM from Madrid. Took his profession in the San Francisco friary of Madrid as a member of the Castilia province. Studies at the San Diego de Alcalá friary. Lector at Alcalá, guardian, visitator, synodal examiner for the Archbishop of Toledo, and provincial definitor. Propagator of frequent and detailed confessions of the faithful. King Philip IV proposed him for the episcopal see of Tuy, but Cristóbal apparently declined this appointment because of his confessional obligations towards the Descalzas Reales of Madrid.

editions

Secundum principium complutense, seu Tractatus de angelis: in quo legitima subtilis doctoris P. Fr. Ioannis Duns Scoti mens & aperitur, & propugnatur (Alcalá de Henares: Ex Officina Mariae Fernandez, 1652). Accessible via Google Books.

Duo tractatus; alter de incarnatione; de adoratione alter, in quibus legitima subtilis doctoris P. Fr. Ioannis Duns Scoti mens & aperitur, & propugnatur (Alcalá de Henares: Ex Officina Mariae Fernandez, 1653). Accessible via Google Books.

Tractatus de Sacramentis in genere et aliquibus in specie, in doctrina subtilis doctoris Scoti (Alcalá de Henares: Ex Officina Mariae Fernandez, 1654). Accessible via Google Books.

Bipartitus de poenitentia tractatus. In cuius priori parte de ea, quatenus est virtus; In posteriori vero de eadem quatenus Sacramentum est. Legitima subtilis doctoris P. Fr. Ioannis Duns Scoti mens & aperitur, & propugnatur (Alcalá de Henares: Ex Officina Mariae Fernandez, 1658). Accessible via Google Books.

Tractatus de venerabili Eucharistiae mysterio: in quo legitima subtilis doctoris P. Fr. Ioannis Duns Scoti mens & aperitur, & propugnatur (Alcalá de Henares: Ex Officina Mariae Fernandez, 1660). Accessible via Google Books.

Cuestión moral o resolución de algunas dudas acerca de la frecuente confesión (Madrid: Domingo García Morras, 1660).

Theoremata sacra theologia subtilis scholastica, expositiva, theandrica, mariana, Carolo Hispaniarum principi catholico dicata. Praeses r.p.fr. Christophorus Delgadillo, (...) Propugnator p.f. Andreas Martin (...) Pro commitijs generalibus seraphici ordinis in conuentu Aracoelitano Romae celebrandis. Anno 1664 (Rome, 1664). Accessible via Google Books.

literature

AIA 25 (1926), 217-226; AIA 5 (1945), 350-357; AIA 15 (1955), 266-267; AIA 39 (1979), 111; José Simón Díaz, Bibliografía de la literatura hispánica, 11 Vols. (Madrid, 1960-1976) X, no. 2706; Manuel de Castro, Bibliografía de las bibliografias franciscanas españolas e hispanoamericanas, Publicaciones de Archivo Ibero-Americano (Madrid: Ed. Cisneros, 1982), 106 (no. 258); Stephen Haliczer, Sexuality in the Confessional: A Sacrament Profaned (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 25; Karen María Vilacoba Ramos. El monasterio de las Descalzas Reales y sus confesores en la edad moderna (Madrid: Editorial Visión Libros, 2013), passim.

 

 

 

 

Christobaldus de Santo Antonio (Cristóbal de San Antonio o Diego Mieses, 1466-1526?/1558?)

Spanish Friar from the Santiago province.

manuscripts/editions

Triumphus Christi contra infideles (Salamanca, 1534). Cf. Castro (1996), 87f. Now accessible via Google Books.

Tratado de los mayorazgós>?

Tratado sobre la Concepción de Nuestra Señora. (1526). Cf. Castro (1996), 88 & AIA 17 (1922), 393-395.

literature

Germán Rubio, ‘El licenciado Cristóbal de Mieses, 1466-1526?’, AIA 17 (1922), 367-400; Manuel de Castro, ‘Notas de bio-bibliografia franciscana’, AIA 29 (1969), 150-158; AIA 30 (1970), 218-219; Manuel de Castro, Bibliografía de las bibliografias franciscanas españolas e hispanoamericanas, Publicaciones de Archivo Ibero-Americano (Madrid: Ed. Cisneros, 1982), 149 (no. 576); Manuel de Castro y Castro, Escritores de la Provincia Franciscana de Santiago. Siglos XIII-XIX, Liceo Franciscano. Revista de Estudio e Investigacion XLVIII (2a Epoca): 145-147 (Santiago de Compostella, 1996), 87-88.

 

 

 

 

Christobaldus de Sancto Josepho Gallo (Cristóbal de San José Gallo, fl. early 18th cent.)

OFMDisc. Member of the San Diego province (Andalucia).

literature

AIA 21 (1924), 334-336; Manuel de Castro, Bibliografía de las bibliografias franciscanas españolas e hispanoamericanas, Publicaciones de Archivo Ibero-Americano (Madrid: Ed. Cisneros, 1982), 119 (no. 339).

 

 

 

 

Christobaldus Lopez de Vera (Cristóbal López de Vera, fl. c. 1750)

OFMDisc. Member of the San Diego province (Andalucia)

editions

Triumphos diarios, cruentos, sacros, y belicos, en los dias de los tormentos, y martyrios de siete seraphicos machabeos: reflectados en los acasos militares, que en los mismos Sagrados dias acaecieron en esta Plaza de Zeuta, y con especialidad en la Salida del dia diez y siete de Octubre deste presente año de 1732 (...) (Sevilla: D. Francisco de Leefdael, 1733). Accessible via the Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes.

literature

AIA 21 (1924), 54; Manuel de Castro, Bibliografía de las bibliografias franciscanas españolas e hispanoamericanas, Publicaciones de Archivo Ibero-Americano (Madrid: Ed. Cisneros, 1982), 141 (no. 513); Bibliografía de autores españoles del siglo XVIII IV, 302-304.

 

 

 

 

Christobaldus Martinez (Cristóbal Martínez de la Puerta, d. 1623)

Andalusian. Arrived in Honduras as a soldier by 1600. He took part in an expedition to Costa Rica, during which he decided to become a missionary. He went to Guatemala and took the Franciscan habit in 1602. For a number of years he worked in Guatemala and Chiapa, teaching Latin and learning various Indian languages. In 1616, he was sent out on his first missionary journey to Tegucigalpa. Two more missionary journeys followed. On the last one, he and two of his companions were killed by natives in 1623.

manuscripts

Seis consultas, en que se satisface a las razones alegadas contra la Expedición de Tegucigalpa, y se prueba que es lícito emprender la Misión, aún con peligro de la vida.>?

Manifiesto apologético en que propone y resuelve el V.P. los obstáculos que podrián ofrecerse acerca de su viaje (1619). See Vázquez IV, 143-147.

Cartas al Provincial de Guatemala sobre la expedición de Tegucigalpa.>?

literature

Francisco Vázquez, Crónica de la Provincia del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús de Guatemala, 2nd Ed., Bibliotea “Goathemala”, 14-17, 4 Vols (Guatemala, 1937-1944) IV, 143-147; A Bio-Bibliography of Franciscan Authors in Colonial Central America, ed. Eleanor B. Adams (Washington D.C.: Academy of American Franciscan History, 1953), 52; Atanasio Herranz, Estado, sociedad y lenguaje: la política lingüística en Honduras, 2nd Ed. (Tegucigalpa: Editorial Guaymuras, 2001). 392ff., 360, 423.

 

 

 

 

Christobaldus Moreno (Cristóbal Moreno, fl. later 16th)

OFM. Member of the Valencia province. Religious author, preacher, confessor, 'secretus' for the inquisition of Valencia, and provincial minister.

editions

Epistola a la Cesarea Magestad de la Emperatriz de Romanos donna Maria de Austria, gloriosissima y Christianissima Reyna de Ungri, y Boemia. &c. Escripta por el muy Reverendo padre fray Christoual Moreno, de la Orden de sant Francisco. Cuesta mysterios particulares de la vida, y milagros del bienauenturaro sant Anthonio de padua nuestro gran Español, y Frayle de la misma Seraphica Orden (Valencia: Baltasar Symon, 1576). Accessible via Google Books.

Libro intitulado Limpieza de la Virgen y Madre de Dios. Dirigido a la C.S.C.R.M. de la Emperatriz de Romanos, Doña Maria de Austria, nuestra Señora (Valencia: Joan Navarro, 1582). Accessible via Google Books.

Tratado de la archiconfraternidad del cordon: fundada por nuestro muy santo padre Papa Sixto Quinto, compuesto por el muy reverendo padre fray Christoval Moreno, de la provincia de Valencia (...) dirigido a la serenissima infanta Dona Margarita de Austria (...) religiosa professa en el convento de las descalças de Madrid (...) (Zaragoza: Pedro Puig, 1590/Barcelona: Sebastian de Cormellas, 1592/Valencia, 1600 & 1604).

Libro de las excelencias, y vida de S. Iuan euangelista. Compuesto por el muy R.P.Fr. Diego de Estella, de la orden de nuestro Seraphico padre S. Francisco. Corregido y añadido por el muy R.P.F. Christoual Moreno (...) Dirigido en esta segunda impression a la muy Reuerenda Señora Sor Luysa Casanoua, Religiosa de la Orden de S. Clara, en el conuento de la Concepcion de Valencia (...) (Valencia: Heredes de Iuan Nauarro, 1595). Accessible via Google Books.

Libro Intitulado Claridad De Simples Compuesto (...) Dirigigo al Illustrissimo y Reverendißimo señor don Juan de Ribera Patriarcha de Antochia Arçobispo de Valencia &c. (Barcelona: Bernat Cuçana Librero, 1596). Accessible via Google Books.

Libro intitulado Iornadas para el Cielo dirigido a la S.C.R.M. del Rey Don Philippe nuestro señor, segundo deste nombre, Rey de las Españas (...) (Alcalá de Henares: Iuan Iñiguez de Lequericz & Diego Guillen, 1596). Accessible via Google Books.

Tratado de las excellencias del agua bendita, recopilado de diversos doctores, por (...) fray Christoval Moreno (...) (Valencia: Juan Grysostomo Garriz, 1600). Accessible via Google Books.

Libro de la vida y obras marauillosas del sieruo de Dios y bienauenturado Padre Fray Pedro Nicolas Factor, de la Orden de nuestro Padre S. Francisco de la Regular Obseruancia de la Prouinca de Valencia. Compvuesto por el muy R.P.F. Christoual Moreno, de la misma Orden, Prouincial de dicha Prouincia (Valencia: Pedro de Huete, 1586/Alcala de Henares: Iuan Gracian & Nicolas del Poçuelo, 1587)/Libro de la vida y obras maravillosas del sieruo de Dios el bienauenturado Padre Fray Pedro Nicolas Factor, de la Orden de nuestro Padre S. Francisco de la Regular Obseruancia de la Prouinca de Valencia. Compvuesto por el muy R.P.F. Christoual Moreno, de la misma Orden, Prouincial de dicha Prouincia. Y agora nvevamente por el mvy R.P.F. Iosef Exomeno Predicador, y Custodio de la misma Prouincia (...) (Barcelona: Sebastian de Cormellas, 1618). These editions are accessible via Google Books.

literature

AIA 3 (1915), 139-140; AIA 8 (1917), 104; AIA 15 (1955), 356-358; Manuel de Castro, Bibliografía de las bibliografias franciscanas españolas e hispanoamericanas, Publicaciones de Archivo Ibero-Americano (Madrid: Ed. Cisneros, 1982), 151 (no. 594); Manuel de Castro y Castro, 'Fray Cristóbal Moreno del Camino, OFM, célebre escritor valenciano del siglo XVI', in: Varia Bibliographica: Homenaje a José Simón Díaz (Kassel: Reichenberger, 1988), 151-164; Bibliografía de la literatura hispánica, ed. José Simón Díaz (Madrid: CSIC, 1992) XV, 370-376 (with more info on editions, versions and translations).

 

 

 

 

Christobaldus Ortega (Cristóbal Ortega, fl. c. 1650)

OFM. Poet.

literature

AIA 15 (1955), 379; Manuel de Castro, Bibliografía de las bibliografias franciscanas españolas e hispanoamericanas, Publicaciones de Archivo Ibero-Americano (Madrid: Ed. Cisneros, 1982), 157 (no. 638).

 

 

 

 

Christobaldus Ramirez (Cristobál Ramírez, fl. late 17th cent.)

OFM. Preacher from the Cartagena province.

literature

AIA 36 (1933), 113-115; Manuel de Castro, Bibliografía de las bibliografias franciscanas españolas e hispanoamericanas, Publicaciones de Archivo Ibero-Americano (Madrid: Ed. Cisneros, 1982), 167 (no. 705).

 

 

 

 

Christobaldus Rosellus (Cristobal Rosel, fl. 18th cent.)

OFM. Member of the Cartagena province.

editions

Floriloquio Mariano. Novena sagrada a la Pura, Limpia e Inmaculada Concepción de María Santíssima, que se venera en la iglesia convento de N.P.S. Francisco de la ciudad de Cartagena (Murcia: Felipe Teruel, s.a.).

Devoción a la Escala Santa, su origen, translaciones y culto que le han dado sucesivamente los Sumos Pontífices desde su establecimiento a Roma: Indulgencias que la han concedico: Y un método breve y devoto para subirla, con veinte y ocho meditaciones de la Pasión, correspondientes a las veinte y ocho Gradas que consta (...) (Murcua: Viuda de Felipe Teruel, s.a.).

literature

AIA 28 (1927), 136; AIA 38 (1935), 89-90; AIA 15 (1955), 423-424; Manuel de Castro, Bibliografía de las bibliografias franciscanas españolas e hispanoamericanas, Publicaciones de Archivo Ibero-Americano (Madrid: Ed. Cisneros, 1982), 172 (no. 746); Francisco Aguilar Piñal, Bibliografía de autores españoles del siglo XVIII VII (), 310 (nos. 2122-2123).

 

 

 

 

Christopher Davenport (Franciscus à Sancta Clara/Francis of St. Claire, c. 1595-1680)

OFMRec. Born as Christopher Davenport in Coventry, England, as the son of Alderman John Davenport and Elizabeth Wolley. After finishing grammar school in Coventry, he spent about 15 months in Dublin (until 22 November 1611). Two years late, in 1613 he and his brother John Davenport proceeded to Merton College, Oxford. Due to a conflict with the warden, the transferred to Magdalen hall in 1614. Christopher became BA on 28 May of the same year. Whereas his brother John embarked on a career as Puritan minister and eventually joined the English Massachusetts Bay colony in 1638, Christopher converted to Catholicism, and in 1615 moved to the Franciscan English College of Douai in Flanders (present day North-West France). He joined the Flemish Franciscans at Ypres and became involved with the restoration of the English Franciscan province. He professed on 7 October 1617 as Francis of St Clare and nine days later joined the English Recollects at at the newly established friary of St. Bonaventure in Douai. From Douai, Christopher/Francis was sent to the University of Salamanca in Spain, where he earned his Doctorate in theology. He became the first theology professor at St. Bonaventure in Douai (1632) and later guardien. Afterwards, he returned to England, where he became a personal chaplain to Queen Henrietta Maria. Christopher/Francis was elected provincial of the English Recollect province. He was re-elected in 1650 and in 1665. Following a period of exile during the civil war/Cromwell period, Christopher/Francis returned to London and was appointed chaplain to Queen Catharine of Braganza. He stayed in London for the remainder of his life, sometimes returning back to Flanders/Northern France to visit male and female Franciscan houses. He died on March 31, 1680.

editions

Epistolium, continens confutationem duarum proposititionem astrologicarum (Douay, 1626).

Problemata Scholastica et controversialia speculativa??

Corollarium Dialogi de Medio Aninarum Statu??

Deus, Natura, Gratia (Lyon, 1634). This work included in an appendix the Paraphrastica Expositio Articulorum Confessionis Anglicanae, which suggested that the Anglican articles of faith could be brought into harmonization with Catholicism. This caused an outcry within certain Catholic circles. The work was put on the Index in Spain. A condemnation by Rome was averted by Gregorio Panzani, the pope's unofficial representative in London.

Apologia Episcoporum (Cologne, 1640).

The Practice of the Presence of God (Douai, 1642).

Systema fidei, seu Tractatus de concilio universali. Ubi tàm ex Principiis Scholasticis, quàm Monumentis veterum: praesertim Magni Orbis Magistri Augustini, Quidditas & Potestas Concilii, cum singulis vel apicibus de hac re desideratis enucleantur: Dovina Authoritas Scripturarum & Traditionum declaratur. Fidei structura delineatur, ubi innumera antiqua examinatur. Distinctio fundamentalium et non fundamentalium in rebus ad fidem spectantibus discutitur. Abstrusiora quaedam ex naturae Penetralibus exponuntur, quibus anima humana immortalis asseritur. Sacrum Tridentinum Vindicatur. Appendix, de origine papatus Romani, et an Petrus et Paulus fuerint simul papae ? (...) authore (...) F. Francisco Davenporto, vulgo a Sancta Clara,... (Liège: Ioannis Tournay, 1648). Available via Google Books.

De Definibilitate Controversiae Immaculate Conceptionis Dei Genitricis Opusculum (Douai, 1651).

Paralipomena Philosophica de Mundo Peripatetico. (Extracta Ex Enchiridion O Manual de Los Tiempos Del R.P. Fr. Alonso Venero. Historia Del Grandissimo Milagro. 1640.) (Antwerp, 1652).

An Echiridion of Faith (Douai, 1655).

Tractatus de Schismate praesertim Anglicano?

Explanation of the Catholic Belief (1656).

Vindication of Roman Catholics (1659).

Liber Dialogorum (Douai, 1661).

Manuale Missionariorum Regularium praecipue Anglorum Ordinis Sacti Francisci (Douai, 1658/Reprint 1661).

Fragmenta: seu Historia Minor. Provine. Angl. Fratrum Minorum, Editio secunda (Douai: Baltasar Belleri, 1661). This second edition is available via Google Books.

Religio Philosophia Peripati discutienda (Douai: Baltasar Belleri, 1662/1667). The 1662 edition is available via Google Books.

Opera omnia Francisci a S. Clara (Douai, 1665-1667).

Disputatio de antiqua Provinciae Praecedentia (1670).

Supplementum historiae provinciae Angliae, in quo est Chronosticon, continens catalogum, & praecipua gesta provincialium Fratrum Minorum provinciae Angliae: Annectitur, Disputatio de antiqua provinciae praecedentia (Douai, 1671).

Paraphrastica Expositio Articulorum Confessionis Anglicanae (1865). A first version of this text was included in the Deus, Natura, Gratia (Lyon, 1634).

literature

E.H. Burton and T.L. Williams (eds.), The Douay College diaries, third, fourth and fifth, 1598–1654, 1, ed. E.H. Burton and T.L. Williams, Catholic Record Society, 10 (London: Privately printed for the Society by J. Whitehead & Son, Leeds, 1911), 132, 136-7; John Berchmans Dockery, Christopher Davenport: friar and diplomat (London: Burns & Oates, 1960); Robert I. Bradley, ‘Christopher Davenport and the Thirty-Nine Articles’, Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 52 (1961), 205-228; George H. Tavard, 'Christopher Davenport and the Problem of Tradition', Theological Studies 24 (1963), 278-290; A P. Cambers, ‘Davenport, Christopher (c.1595–1680)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004 / http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/7199); Anne A. Davenport, 'Scotus as the Father of Mondernity: The Matural Philosophy of the English Franciscan Christopher Davenport in 1652', Early Science and Medicine 12:1 (2007), 55-90; Philippe Yates, 'The Greenwich Observants and Christopher Davenport', in: A Pilgrimage Through the Franciscan Intellectual Tradition, ed. André Cirino & Josef Raischl (Canterbury: Franciscan International Study Centre, 2008), 345-364; Francis J. Bremer, 'Families and Religious Conflict in the Early Modern Atlantic World', in: Puritans and Catholics in the Trans-Atlantic World 1600-1800, ed. Crawford Gribben & R. Scott Spurlock (Springer Verlag, 2016), passim; Anne Ashley Davenport, Suspicious Moderate. The Life and Writings of Francis à Sancta Clara (1598–1680) (Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame Press, 2017).

 

 

 

 

Christophorus de Cheffontaines (Christophe de Cheffontaines, d. 1595)

OFM. French friar. Polemic author. Born at Sibiril, near Saint Pol-de-Léon, Brittany in 1512 as son of the noble Penfentenyou family, Lords of Kermoruz. He joined the Franciscans at Cuburien (near Morlaix) in 1532. Studied in Paris and obtained the doctorate of theology. After his studies he became Provincial minister of Bretagne. Later minister general of the order (between 1571 and 1579) and afterwards auxiliary bishop for Cardinal de Pellevé (who was residing in Rome) in the diocese of Sens (1579-1586). Appointed Archbishop of Cesarea in 1588 (a position that he held until 1594). Christophe died in the San Pietro in Montorio friary.

editions

Défense de la foi de l’Eglise contre les hérétiques de notre temps (Paris: Frémy, 1564).

La défense de la foi de nos ancêtres, contenant quinze chapitres, où sont déclarés les stratgèmes et ruses hérétiques de notre temps (Paris, 1570). Issued in Latin as: Fidei majorum nostrum Defensio, qua haereticorum saeculi nostri (…) deteguntur (Antwerp: Plantin, 1575/Venice, 1581). The 1575 edition is available via Google Books.

La défense de la foi de nos ancetres, où la présence réelle du corps de Notre-Seigneur est prouvée par plus de trois cent cinquante raisons (Paris, 1571/Paris: Guillaume de la Nouë, 1586). Issued in Latin as: Defensionis fidei majorum nostrum liber secundus, in quo veritas corporis Christi in eucharistiae sacramento, demonstratur et probatur. The 1586 French edition is available via Google Books.

See also the related work: Defensio fidei maiorum quam de vera et reali corporis Christi in eucharistiae sacramento (Cologne: Maternus Cholinus, 1587). Available via Google Books.

Réponse familière à une épistre écrite contre le libéral arbitre et le mérité des bonnes oeuvres (Paris: E. Petit, 1568/Re-editions in Paris, 1571 and Antwerp/Rome, 1575, 1576, 1578). Christophe translated it into Latin as: Consulatio epistolae cujusdam contra liberum arbitrium et merita (Antwerp, 1576). Comparable with De libero arbitio (...)? See below.

De libero Arbitrio et Meritis bonorum Operum Assertio (Antwerp, 1575/Rome: Haereded Antonii Bladii, 1576). Available via the digital collections of the Bayerische Staatbibliothek and via Google Books.

Perpetuae Mariae Virginis ac Ioseph sponsi eius virginitatis catholica (Lyon: Michael Jovius & Johan Pillehotte, 1578). Available via Google Books.

Compendium priuilegiorum fratrum minorum et religiosarum sub eorum cura viuentium, necnon & aliorum fratrum mendicantium, ordine alphabetico digestum. Cum noua dictorum priuilegiorum per Gregorium papam 13. confirmatione. Per r.p.f. Christophorum de Capite fontium, totius ordinis minorum generalem ministrum, recognitum & eius iussu excusum (Paris: Simon Caluatinus, 1578). Available via Google Books.

Apologie de la confrérie des pénitents, érigée et instituée en la ville de Paris par Henri III (Paris, 1583).

De la vertu des paroles par lesquelles se fait la consécration (Paris, 1585).

Variae disputationes de eo quod sit utile ac necessarium>>...

Novae illustrationis christianae fidei adversus impios libertinos, Atheos, Epicureos, et omne genus infideles/Epitome novae illustrationis christianae fidei adversus impios, libertinos et atheos (Paris: Arnold Sittart, 1586/1606). Available via Google Books.

Chrétienne confutation du point d’honneur sur lequel la noblesse fonde aujourd’huy ses querelles et monomachies (Paris: C. Frémy, 1568/Paris, 1571, 1579/ Paris: Arnold Sittart, 1586/Cologne, 1585) [1586 Parisian edition available via Google Books]. The work was also translated into Latin: Confutatio puncti, quem vocant honoris: super quo contentionum, monomachiarum sive duellorum suorum fundamenta Christiana hodie nobilitas iacit (1585).

Varii Tractatus et Disputationes correctionis nonnullarum communium opinionum theologiae scholasticae (Paris, 1586). This work attacked faults of scholastic theology, and was placed on the Index. Moreover, Christophe was under investigation for two years in Rome. The reason was his assertion in this work that the transsubstantiation took place during the benediction and before uttering ‘hoc est corpus meum’. Eventually it did not hamper the author’s appointment to the Archiepiscopal see of Cesarea.

literature

L.F. Le Menn, ‘Documents relatifs à Christophe de Cheffontaines archevêque de Césarée (1588-1594)’, Revue des sociétés savantes 3 (1872), 656-659; Dictionnaire biographique de France VIII, 966; DThCat II, 2352-2354; Correspondance du nonce en France Fabio Frangipani, ed. A. Lynn Martin (Rome, 1984), 313-359; Gaïa Rossetti, Christophe de Cheffontaines protagoniste du changement religieux du XVIème siècle 1512-1595, 2 Vols. Photocopy D.E.A. (Tours, 1993); Robert Sauzet, Mendiants et réformes. Les réguliers mendiants acteurs du changement religieux dans le royaume de France (1480-1560) (Tours: Publications e l’Université de Tours, 1994), 61-62.

 

 

 

 

Christobaldus Palomo (Cristóbal Palomo, fl. c. 1765)

OFM. Preacher in the Aragon province.

editions

Festivos alborozos, harmoniosos ecos, con que la sabia, subtil Mariana Escuela aplaude reverente y solemniza amante la Concepción Puríssima de María entre los bellos cambiantes de la Divina Gracia. En el Real y Observantissimo convento de San Francisco de la ciudad de Zaragoza (...) Orador el M.R.P. Fray Cristobal Palomo, Lector en Sagrada Theologia (...) (Zaragoza: Joseph Fort, 1766). Digitally available via the E-Europeana collections [ at the url http://www.europeana.eu/portal/en/record/9200376/BibliographicResource_3000100300611.html?utm_source=api&utm_medium=api&utm_campaign=SoraGMm7b ], at the Biblioteca Digital Hispánica [at the url http://bdh.bne.es/bnesearch/biblioteca/Festivos%20alborozos,%20harmoniosos%20ecos,%20con%20que%20la%20...%20Subtil%20Mariana%20Escuela%20...%20solemniza%20la%20Concepcion%20Purissima%20de%20Maria%20...%20en%20el%20Real%20...%20Convento%20de%20San%20Francisco%20de%20...%20Zaragoza%20%20%20/qls/bdh0000142523;jsessionid=82A9142543A4DBE755009F4E9AD03BD3 ], and via Gallica.

literature

AIA 15 (1955), 389-390; Manuel de Castro, Bibliografía de las bibliografias franciscanas españolas e hispanoamericanas, Publicaciones de Archivo Ibero-Americano (Madrid: Ed. Cisneros, 1982), 160 (no. 658); Bibliografía de autores españoles del siglo XVIII VI (1991), 263 (no. 1873).

 

 

 

 

Christophorus de Lisbona (Cristóvão de Lisboa, 1583-1652)

Portuguese friar, missionary and biologist.

literature

Luiza da Fonseca, 'Frei Cristóvão de Lisboa, O. F. M., Missionary and Natural Historian of Brazil', The Americas 8:3 (January 1952), 289-303; João Francisco Marques, 'Frei Cristovão de Lisboa, missionário no Maranhão e Grão-Pará (1624-1635), e a defesa dos Índios Brasileiros', Revista da Faculdade de Letras-Historia 2nd Ser. 13 (1996), 323-351; M. de Lourdes Sirgado Ganho, ‘Frei Cristóvão de Lisboa (Lisboa 1583-Lisboa 1652)’, Itinerarium 59:207 (2013), 425-432; L. Marques de Sousa, 'Frei Cristóvão de Lisboa (1583-1652) Vida e Obra do primeiro custódio do Maranhão (trabalhos apostólicos, historiografia e primeiros estudos de zoologia amazónica)' [available via www.academia.edu].

 

 

 

 

Christophorus de Rojas y Spinola (Cristobal de Rojas y Spinola, 1626-1695)

OFMRec. Born in Roermond (presen-day Limburg province, The Netherlands) from Spanish noble parentage. Joined the order and went through the Franciscan school program. Afterwards, he became active at the court of Emperor Leopold I in Vienna, and he acted as an imperial embassador/representative throughout Germany, Spain and Rome. He obtained the episcopal see of Knin (present-day Croatia), and later (1685) he was made bishop of Wiener-Neustadt. He became known for his attempts to reconcile Protestants and Catholics, and in this context entered into exchanges with Molanus, the Lutheran Abbot of Loccum, and with the philosopher Leibniz. Among other things, Spinola proposed the organisation of a large ecumenical council, following a number of preparatory meetings between Catholic and Protestant theologians to settle the most important dogmatic differences. He also proposed a recognition of the ministry of Protestant clergymen, who in turn would accept papal authority, and in addition suggested that, to facilitate matters, the Catholic Church should allow the laity access to the chalice during the Eucharist, and allow priests who were so inclined the right to marry. None of these ideas could convince the most prominent spokesmen and authorities on either side of the confessional divide.

editions

Regulae circa Christianorum omnium ecclesiasticam reunionem. Several manuscript copies are apparently available in Hanover, and excerpts are provided in several studies mentioned below.

literature

G. Menge, Franz. Stud., 1 (1914), 28-34 & 2 (1915), 1-62 ; DThC>>; John Philip Spielman, Christoval de Roxas y Spinola, 1626-1695, PhD. Thesis (University of Wisconsin, 1957); Samual J.T. Miller & John P. Spielman Jr., Crístobal Rojas y Spínola, Cameralist and Irenicist, 1626–1695, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, 52, 5 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1962) [See also the mixed review in The Journal of Ecclesiastical History 14:2 (October 1963), 239]; Paul Eisenkopf, Leibniz und die Einigung der Christenheit (Munich: Verlag Ferdinand Schoningh, 1975), passim; H. Otte, Die Reunionsgespräche im Niedersachsen des 17. Jahrhunderts (Göttingen, 1999); LThK³ IX, 846; Johannes Madey, ‘Spinola Cristòbal de Rojas y (auch: Christophe de Rojas y Spinola)’, in: Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche 3IX, 846; Karin Masser, Bruder in Christo. Christóbal de Gentil de Rojas y Spinola OFM [ep., rec. † 1695] und der lutherische Abt Gerardus Wolterius Molanus. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Unionsbestrebungen der katholischen und evangelischen Kirche im 17. Jahrhundert, Diss. (Innsbruck, Theol. Fakultät, 2000); Karin Masser, Christobal de Gentil de Rojas y Spinola O.F.M. und der lutherische Abt Gerardus Wolterius Molanus. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Unionsbestrebungen der katholischen und evangelischen Kirche im 17. Jahrhundert, Reformationsgeschichtliche Studien und Texte, 145 (Münster: Aschendorff Verlag, 2002).

 

 

 

 

Christophorus de Romandiola (Cristoforo di Romagna/de Cahors) (ca. 1172-1272, Cahors) b. in 1905

Was a secular priest before he entered the order of Francis in 1215. Francis sent him to Aquitania, where he preached against the Albigensians. Founded several Francican convents in Cahors and neighbouring areas. Author?

editions:

>>>>

literature:

AF, 3 (1897), 161-173 (Vita written by Bernard of Bessa, Cahors, 1304?); AFH, 4 (1911), 619ff; Aureola, 5 (...?), 501-514; BiblSS, 4, 366f; Giambattista Montorsi, ‘Beato Cristoforo di Romagna [d. 1272]’, in: Risuona nelle mie orecchie, 7-20.

 

 

 

 

Christophorus de Varisio (Cristoforo Picinelli da Varese, d. 1491)

OFMObs. Friar from Varese. Studied Roman and Canon Law before he entered the Franciscan order. Worked with Giovanni da Capistrano and also was Giovanni’s first biographer. After Giovanni da Capistrano’s death, Cristoforo remained active as preacher in Austria, Bohemia, and Poland. Between 1453 and 1467/68, he was vicar general of Bohemia. Just after 1467, he apparently lived in Jerusalem. He also edited the provincial constitutions of the Polish province. Aside from a biography of Giovanni da Capistrano and provincial constitutions for the Polish province, Cristoforo composed a Declaratio Regulae/Declaratio super Regulam, two treatises on Franciscan order privileges (including those that made the Franciscans custodians f the holy land), and a Rosarium de Vita et Morte Christi (in verse).

manuscripts and editions

Declaratio Regulae Fratrum Minorum: Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale VII.E.75 ff. 1a-38d; VII.G.41; VII.G.42 ff. 3r-27v; Rieti, Biblioteca Communale I,2,34 ff, 231v-233r (15th cent.); Kórnik, Biblioteka Kórnicka Polskiej Akademii Nauk I.B.19 [sec. XVI], ff. 308r-317r; L'Aquila, Biblioteca Provinciale «Salvatore Tommasi» J-151.

Exhortatio in Capitulo generali 1487: MS Kórnik, Biblioteka Kórnicka Polskiej Akademii Nauk I.G.119 [sec. XV-XVI], ff. 188r-189r.

Commentum super Privilegia guardiani Montis Sion et fratrum in Syria et Palestina habitantium collecta: MS Kórnik, Biblioteka Kórnicka Polskiej Akademii Nauk I.F.97 [sec. XV ex.], ff. 34r-52v.

Privilegia fratrum Minorum in Terra Sancta et in Bosna: Kórnik, Biblioteka Kórnicka Polskiej Akademii Nauk I.F.97 [sec. XV ex.], f. 30.

Tractatus de Privilegiis. For a partial edition of this treatise concerning the privileges dealing with the Holy Land, see P. Girolamo Golubovich, Serie cronologica dei reverendissimi superiori di Terra Santa (Jerusalem: Tipografia del Convento di S. Salvatore, 1898), XXVII, Incipiunt privilegia per diversos summos pontifices fratribus Terrae Sanctae concessa, per ordinem Alphabeti. This is still in the archive of the Franciscans in Jerusalem and forms the basis of the Bullarium Terrae Sanctae. Cristoforo apparently compiled the priviliges collection at the request of Francesco da Piacenza, the Franciscan custodian of the Holy Land (1467-72). The treatise contains 46 papal bulls issued between 1230 and 1448. He also certified, through his research, the sites of nine plenary indulgences in Jerusalem, including four that could be gained in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.

Statuta pro provincia Polona: MS Kórnik, Biblioteka Kórnicka Polskiej Akademii Nauk I.F.97 [sec. XV ex.], ff. 135v-136r.

Vita S. Joannis (1462), edited in AASS 23 October, 270-271, 491-546. CF. BHL, no. 4363.

Rosarium de Vita et Morte Christi. Published as an appendix to the Interrogatorio ossia Regola della Vita Christiana (Milan, 1493) [Hain no. 9259]

Epistola ad Patres et fratres provinciae Boemae, edited in F. Gonzaga, De origine seraphicae religionis franciscanae (Rome, 1587), 353.

literature

Wadding, Annales Minorum ad. ann. 1491, no. 4-6; DSpir II, 876; Cenci, Napoli, I, 528; MIRABILE. Archivio digitale della cultura medievale/Digital Archives for Medieval Culture [at the url http://www.mirabileweb.it/calma/christophorus-de-varisio-v-1451-m-1491/1131 ]

 

 

 

 

Christophorus de Verrucchio (Cristoforo da Verucchio/Cristoforo Facciardi/'il Verucchino', 1555-1630)

OFMCap>>>>>Preacher, historian, hagiographer, liturgist and author of spiritual works…

editions

Compendio di cento meditationi sacre sopra tutta la vita, e la passione si del Signore come della Madonna, e sopra tutti gli altri essercitii della vita spirituale (...) (Venice: Nicolò Misserini, 1623). Accessible via Google Books.

Vita del Beato Giovanni, Canonico della Cattedrale di Rimini, e del B. Roberto Malatesta, con altre sacre memorie di Verucchio, terra della diocesi dell'istessa città di Rimini (Rimini: Simbeni, 1610).

literature

Gabriele da Modigliana, Leggendario Cappuccino ovvero vite di persone per virtu, e pietà illustri della serafica religione cappuccina del Padre San Francesco d'Assisi. Tomo Primo, Che comprende tutto il Mese di Gennajo (Venice: Dionisio Bassi, 1767), 271-275; DSpir II, 876-877; Collectanea Franciscana 37 (1967), 327.

 

 

 

 

Christophorus Fleming (Patrick Fleming/Christopher Fleming, 1599–1631)

Irish Franciscan friar, born as Christopher Fleming in Baile Atha Lagain (Lagan Bridge, county of Louth). Traveled in 1612 to the Irish College at Douai (where his oncle Christopher Cusack was guardian). He joined the Irish Franciscans at St Anthony's College, Louvain, in 1617, and made his profession a year later to Anthony Hickey, taking the name Patrick. Fleming was ordained priest around 1622, and the following year he traveled to Rome as the socius of Hugh MacCaughwell OFM. During this journey they encountered in Paris Hugh Ward OFM and the leading lector of the Irish college in Paris, Thomas Messingham. Together they decided to start collecting and publishing Irish saints’ lives. As a result, Fleming visited many Italian and French libraries, corresponding with MacCaughwell, Messingham, Ward, and others. In the Aracoeli friary in Rome, he also worked with MacCaughwell on John Duns Scotus. Fleming fulfulled his doctoral examinations at the Franciscan General Chapter of 1624, and the following year was appointed lecturer in philosophy at the newly erected St Isidore's College in Rome, founded that year. When MacCaughwell died in 1626, shortly after his appointment as archbishop of Armagh, Fleming wrote his biography, which became a source for the eulogy on MacCaughwell by the Louvain scholar Nicholas Vernulaeus. By 1627, Fleming himself was teaching philosophy at Louvain, bringing with him materials on Irish saints gathered in a number of European libraries. Before he was able to get his edition of the lives of St Columban and other Irish saints ready for press, he was sent to the new Irish Franciscan college in Prague, where he taught theology, continued his works on Irish saints and medieval Irish religious life and helped defend the existence of the new college against Observant and notably Capuchin opposition. Due to the Thirty years War and the threat of the army of Gustav of Sweden, the college was evacuated in the Fall of 1631. On the road, Fleming and others were ambushed by a Protestant militia and killed. He was buried in the Franciscan church of Votice. After his death, many of Fleming’s editorial works were completed and brought to press by his Louvain collegues (See also under Hugo Vardaeus/Hugo Ward). His works on St. Colomban were issued by Thomas Sheeran at Louvain in 1666.

editions

R.P.F. Patricii Flemingi … Collectanea sacra, seu, S. Columbani Hiberni abbatis acta , ed. Thomas Sheeran (Sirinus) (Louvain, 1666).

literature

W. Reeves, ‘Irish library: no. 2, Fleming's Collectanea sacra’, Ulster Journal of Archaeology 2 (1854), 253-261; E. Hogan, ‘Irish historical studies in the seventeenth century’, Irish Ecclesiastical Record, new Ser., 7 (1870–1871), 31-43, 56-77, 193-216; R.J. Kelly, ‘The Irish Franciscans in Prague, 1629–1768: their literary labours’, Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, 6th Ser., 12 (1922), 169-174; F. Ó Briain, ‘Irish Franciscan historians of St. Anthony's College, Louvain: Patrick Fleming’, Catholic Bulletin 18 (1928), 77-87; F. Matthews, ‘Brevis synopsis provinciae Hiberniae FF. Minorum’, ed. B. Jennings, Analecta Hibernica 6 (1934), 139-191; B. Jennings (ed.), ‘Documents from the archives of St Isidore's College, Rome’, Analecta Hibernica 6 (1934), 203-247; B. Jennings, ‘The Irish Franciscans in Prague’, Studies: an Irish Quarterly Review 28 (1939), 210-222; B. Jennings (ed.), ‘Documents of the Irish Franciscan college at Prague’, Archivium Hibernicum 9 (1942), 173-294; N. Wright, ‘Columbanus's Epistulae’, in: Columbanus: studies on the Latin writings, ed. Michael Lapidge (1997), 29–92; P.A. Breatnach, ‘An Irish Bollandus: Fr Hugh Ward and the Louvain hagiographical enterprise’, Éigse 31 (1999), 1-30; Ignatius Fennessy, ‘Fleming, Christopher (1599–1631)’, in: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004; online edition, Oct 2008: http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/9708).

 

 

 

 

Christophorus Leutbrewer (Keutbrewer, fl. first half 17th cent.)

Franciscan friar in the Cologne province. Known to have resided in Cologne itself around 1650. He produced a rather peculiar confession manual, the Industria spiritualis in qua modus traditur praeparandi se ad confessionem aliquam plurimorum annorum, ita ut spatio duarum horarum, paratus quis esse possit vel à centum annis confiteri, etsi calamum nn attingat, & id accuratè, sine periculo culpabilis omissionis peccatorum mortalium. &c. (Cologne: Apud Michaëlum Demenium, 1634). This work was later translated into French Flemish and Spanish. Several editions can now be accessed via Google Books, via the digital collections of Ghent university library and other digital portals, such as the Europeana collections.

literature

L. Ceyssens, 'La pratique de la confession générale: 'La confession coupée' suivant le P. Christophe Leutbrewer', in: Jansénius et le jansénisme dans les Pays-Bas, ed. dans J. Van Bavel & M. Schrama (Louvain, 1982), 93-113; R. Aubert, 'Leutbrewer (Christophe)', DHGE XXXI (2013), 1174.

 

 

 

 

Christophorus Numai de Forli (Christoforus Forlivensis/Cristoforo Numai, d. 1528)

OMObs. Italian friar from Forli. Confessor of Louise of Savoy, minister general and made Cardinal of Santa Maria di Araceli by Pope Leo X. He was mistreated/tortured by Imperial soldiers during the sack of Rome and died of his injuries in 1528.

literature

Archivio Storico Italiano, 152 (1994), 735-766; Stefano Fabbri & Andrea Fabbri, ‘Due documenti sul cardinale Cristoforo Numai OFM’, Studi Francescani 112:3-4 (2015), 543ff.

 

 

 

 

Christopher Ruiz (c. 1490 - 1550)

OFMObs. Entered the Observant branch in the province of the Immaculate Conception. Departed for Mexico in March 1538, together with fourteen other friars (a.o. Juan de Gaona). Christopher became guardian of the Tlalmanalco convent, provincial counsellor of the Santo Evangelio province, and two times guardian of the San Francisco de Mexico convent ( apparently, Christopher was not much of a language scholar, which limited his possibilities to work as a missionary among the Mexican people). He seemingly had a good reputation as local and regional order administrator and as man of prayer and meditation. He left behind a Tratado de Oración (1540), a prayer book with illuminist tendencies, showing the influence of Franciscan mysticism (particularly the mysticism of Francisco de Osuna). Christopher died on 25 January 1550, and was buried in the crypt of the San Francisco de Mexico convent.

editions

Tratado de Oración (Mexico, 1540)

literature

Wadding, Annales Minorum XIX (Quaracchi, 1933), 77; Francesco Gonzaga, De Origine Seraphicae Religionis (Venice, 1603), 1453; Arturo de Monasterio, Martyrologium Franciscanum (Paris, 1653)>>; AASS 25 March (Antwerp, 1668), 533; F. Hueber, Menologium Sanctorum (Muhich, 1698), 763 (25 March); Joquin García Icazbalceta, Nueva Colección de documentos para la historia de Mexico (Mexico, 1889) II, 331;Marcellino da Civezza, Storia delle Missione Francescane (Prato, 1881) VI, 555 & VII/2, 594, 605; A. du Monstier, Martirologio Francescano (Vatican City, 1946), 89 (25 March); AIA 8 (1948), 61; A. Vetancurt, Theatro Mexicano (Madrid, 1961), IV, 243; A. Chávez, The Codex Oroz (Washington D.C., 1972), 127, 130; DSpir XIII, 1122.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chrysologus de Gy (d. 1808)

OFMCap. Member of the Lyon province. Astronomer.

literature

Lexicon Capuccinum (1951), 142.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chrysostomos de Gaufridy (d. 1670)

French friar. Chronicler of the Recollect reformation.

literature

P. Péano, `Les Chroniques et les débuts de la réforme des Récollets dans la Province de Provence', AFH, 65 (1972), 157-224.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chrysostomos de Guglionesi (d. 1621)

OFMCap.

literature

Luigi Cianilli, Sette stelle di prima grandezza nel Convento dei Cappuccini di Serracapriola (Foggia: Ed. Padre Pio da Pietrelcina, 2005)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clara Assisiensis (1193-1253), sancta

Born at Assisi in a urban noble family (Daughter of Favarone di Offreduccio di Bernardino and Ortolana). Joined Francis at the Portiuncola around ‘Palmpasen’ 1211 (1212). After a short stay at several female Benedictine houses, in the neighbourhood of Assisi, she was able to establish herself with her sister (Agnes) in the small St. Damien church (rebuilt by Francesco d’Assisi), where she shaped the first female Franciscan community. This was the start of the Order of Poor Clares. Around this time Francesco gave Clara a short rudimentary forma vitae, with special emphasis on evangelical poverty and stressing the special relation with the male movement. [Francesco d’Assisi, Forma Vivendi S. Clarae Data, ed. Esser (1978), 162-163. (This rudimentary rule for the Poor Clares was later , incorporated in the the rule written by Clare that was approbated in 1253). Following the Fourth Lateran Council, which forbade the creation of new religious rules, Clara was more or less forced to adopt the Rule of Benedict. Yet she asked and obtained for her St. Damian community an additional poverty privilege by pope Innocent III in 1215/1216. [For a long time, no early manuscripts were known of this privilegium paupertatis. It could be found in the Firmamenta Trium Ordinum (Paris, 1512) Part V, f. 5r. This lead to doubts concerning its authenticity, although it was repeatedly edited in opera omnia collections and collections of legal texts, such as Privilegium Paupertatis: Seraphicae Legislationis Textus Originales (Quaracchi, 1897), 97-98. The doubts concerning the Privilegium were for a while put aside by the studies of Lazzeri, Sabatier and Grau (Z. Lazzeri, ‘Il ‘Privilegium paupertatis’ concesso da Innocenzo III e che cosa fosse in origine’, AFH 11 (1918), 270-276; Paul Sabatier, ‘Le Privilège de la pauvreté’, Revue d’Histoire Franciscaine 1 (1924), 1-54; Engelbert Grau, ‘Das Privilegium paupertatis Innocenz III’, Franziskanische Studien 21 (1949), 337-349; E. Grau, ‘Das Privilegium paupertatis der hl. Klare. Geschichte und Bedeutung’, Wissenschaft und Weisheit 38 (1975), 17-25), and recently, it was possible to make a new edition on the basis of three newly found old manuscripts (cf. editions below).] When the number of communities of Poor Clares (Poor Sisters of St. Damian) becan to grow, pope Honorius III asked his legate, cardinal Hugolin to act as their protector. Hugolin made these new communities excempt from episcopal jurisdiction, giving them all the Rule of Benedict and composed himself (without asking advice of Francesco d’Assisi or Clara) in 1218-1219 a Forma et Modus Vitae, with special emphasis on clausura, silence, fasting and bodily mortification. This rule was approved by Honorius III in 1219 (a.o. edited in I. Omaechevarría, Escritos de Santa Clara y Documentos complementarios (Madrid, 1982²), 206-232. The Rule of Hugonin does not emphasis evangelical poverty. Nor does it acknowledge the family relationship with the Friars Minor.) After Hugonin had become pope (Gregory IX), Clara was able to obtain for her own community at St. Damian a confirmation of the Privilegium Paupertatis (in the papal bulls Cum omnis vera of May 1239 (Gregory IX), BF I, 263-267 and Solet Annuere (November 1245, by Innocent IV, BF I, 394-399)), yet the rule of Hugonin remained in force for all communities of Poor Sisters. On 6 August 1247, Innocent IV issued a new rule for the Poor Sisters (Cf. the bull Cum omnis vera, BF I, 476-483. The Regula Inn. Can also be found in I. Omaechevarría, Escritos de Santa Clara y Documentos complementarios (Madrid, 1982²), 237-259. Innocent put the Poor Clares under the jurisdiction of the Friars Minor and made the Regula Bullata of the Franciscan order the juridical basis for the way of life of the Poor Sisters (?), yet without integrating the Privilegium Paupertatis in the new rule for the Poor Sisters. In reaction, Clara d’Assisi produced her own rule, with recourse to the Francesco’s rudimentary Forma Vitae, the Regula Bullata, the Regula Hug., the Regula Inn. and her own spiritual insights. This new rule, which again stresses evangelical poverty (characterised by a refusal of possessions and stable revenues, but allowing the use of money) received official approval on 16 september 1252 by the cardinal protector Raynaldus, and on 9 August 1253 by pope Innocent IV, a few months before Clara’s death. However, Clare’s rule was only approved for the Sant Damian monastery and was not binding for the other communities of Poor Sisters. In France, the Poor Clare Elisabeth (sister of King Louis IX) obtained approval for a rule of her own, written for the Longchamp community of Poor Sisters. This rule was approved by pope Alecander IV (Bull Sol ille verus, February 1259, BF II, 64-68). This rule later was modified and approved for other monasteries by pope Urban IV (Bull Religionis augmentum, July 1263, BF II, 477-486). Shortly thereafter, Urban IV ordered another rule to be made for the order of Poor Clares as a whole, to unify the way of life in the various communities. This rule was compiled on request of Urban IV by Cardinal protector Orsini (the future pope Nicholas III). This new rule of Urban IV was issued for all monasteries of the ‘order of St. Claire’ in the bull Beata Clara (October 1263, BF II, 509-521[For general information concerning the legislation history of the Poor Clares, see: L. Oliger, ‘De origine Regularum Ordinis S. Clarae’, AFH 5 (1912), 181-209, 413-447; I. Omaechevarría, ‘La ‘Regla’y las Reglas de la Orden de Santa Clara’, Collectanea Franciscana 46 (1976), 93-119.]

 

See the literature below for more details on her life and career. Five of her spiritual letters do survive, as does her rule, her testament and (spurious?) a benediction. She also was actively involved in the composition process of the 1252/1253 rule for the Poor Clares. After her death, Clare received many vitae (see also the vita & miracula section of this internet site) and was officially canonised in 1255 [BF II, 811-84]

editions & translations

Clare’s works have appeared in several editions of Franciscan sources (which normally also include several saints’ lives on Clare, the writings and vitae of Francis etc.), such as the omnibus: Textus Opusculorum S. Francisci et S. Clarae Assisiensium, ed. Giovanni Boccali (Assisi, 1976) and its re-issue as Opuscula S. Francisci et scripta S. Clarae Assisiensium, ed. Giovanni Boccali (Assisi, 1978). Independently, the works of Clare were first presented altogether in Escritos de Santa Clara y Documentos contemporaneos, ed. Ignacio Omaechevarría (Madrid, 1970 & Madrid, 1982). They also appeared in Claire d’Assise, Écrits. Introduction, texte latin, traduction, notes et index, ed. Marie-France Becker, Jean-François Godet, Thaddée Matura, Sources Chrétiennes 325 (Paris, 1985) and in Chiara d’Assisi, Scritti (Vicenza, 1986). See on such collections also the vita & miracula section. For other general studies of her life and writings, including translated source omnibusses, see especially: P. Robinson, ‘The writings of S. Clare of Assisi’, AFH 3 (1910), 433-447; Leben und Schriften der hl. Klara von Assisi, ed. E. Grau (Werl, 1952); E. Grau, ‘Die Schriften der heiligen Klara und die Werke ihrer Biographen’, in: Movimento religioso femminile e francescanesimo nel secolo XIII, Atti del VII Convegno internazionale (Assisi, 11-13 ott. 1979) (Assisi, 1980); Leben und Schriften der heiligen Klara von Assisi, ed. Engelbert Grau & Marianne Schlosser, Franziskanische Quellenschriften 2, 8. neu bearbeitete Auflage (Kevelaer, 2001); Scritti e fonti biografiche di Chiara d’Assisi, introd. & trans. Chiara Augusta Lainata & Feliciano Olgiatti, in: Fonti francescane (Assisi, 1977), 2207-2465; Sainte Claire d’Assise. Sa vie par Thomas de Celano. Ses écrits, trans. D. Vorreux (Paris, 1953); Sainte Claire d’Assise, trans. D. Vorreux (Paris, 1983); Francis and Clate, The Complete Writings, trans. R.J. Armstrong & Ignatius C. Brady (New York-Ramsey-Toronto, 1982); Saint Clare of Assisi. Her Legend and selected Writings, trans. Christopher Stace, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (London-Triangle, 2000).

Litterae ad beatam Agnetem de Praga (four letters written between 1234 and 1253 to Agnes of Bohemia). These can be found in some of the collective works editions mentioned above. A.o. Claire d’Assise, Écrits. Introduction, texte latin, traduction, notes et index, ed. Marie-France Becker, Jean-François Godet, Thaddée Matura, Sources Chrétiennes 325 (Paris, 1985), 82-119. They also can be found in AASS 6 March Volume I (Antwerp, 1668), 506-508 [Edited together with the Legend of Agnes of Bohemia], and in AFH 17 (1924), 513-519. The first critical edition was produced by J.K. Vyskocil in: Legenda Blahoslavené Anezky a ctyri listj Sv. Klàry, ed. J.K. Vyskocil (Prague, 1932), an edition which was re-issued with English translation as The Legend of Blessed Agnes of Bohemia and the Four Letters of St. Clare, ed. J.K. Vyskocil (Cleveland Ohio, 1963); L. Barabàs, ‘Le lettere di S. Chiara alla B. Agnese di Praga’, in: S. Chiara (…) Centenario, 123-143; Lettere ad Agnese. La visione dello specchio, ed. Giovanni Pozzi & Beatrice Rima, Piccola Biblioteca Adelphi 426 (Milan, 1999); Clare’s Letters to Agnes. Texts and Sources, ed. Joan Mueller, Texts and Sources (St. Bonaventure NY, 2001). See also W.W. Seton, ‘The letters from Saint Clare to blessed Agnes of Bohemia’, AFH 17 (1924), 509-519. There also exist several translations in several European languages. [These four letters are all that is left of the lengthy correspondence between Clara and Agnes (daughter of king Ottokar I of Bohemia and queen Constance of Hungary, and cousin of the Poor Clare Elisabeth of Hungary (1207-1231)) during twenty years. The letters are spiritual commendations in rather beautiful Latin, praising Agnes’ virtues and evangelical life and encouraging her in her chosen lifestyle of poverty and humility and in her devotion to the suffering Christ and the Virgin Mary. For an analysis of the spiritual themes in these letters, see also Alfonso Marini, ‘‘Ancilla Christi, plantula sancti Francisci’. Gli scritti di santa Chiara e la Regola’, in: Chiara d’Assisi, Atti del XX Convegno internazionale Assisi, 15-17 ottobre 1992 (Spoleto, 1993), 127ff.].

 

Benediction, ed. in: Seraphicae Legislationis Textus Originales (Quaracchi, 1897), 281-284; Benediction, ed. W.W. Seton, in: Idem, ‘Some new sources for the life of Blessed Agnes of Prag, including some chronological notes and a new text of the Benediction of Saint Clara’, AFH 7 (1915), 185-197; Claire d’Assise, Écrits. Introduction, texte latin, traduction, notes et index, ed. Marie-France Becker, Jean-François Godet, Thaddée Matura, Sources Chrétiennes 325 (Paris, 1985),186-189 (a new critical edition based on the available Latin manuscripts. [Supposedly a benediction of the present and future sisters, composed by Clara shortly before she died. As a matter of fact, the benediction resembles the benediction addressed to Agnes of Prague, which survives in some Medieval German manuscripts as an attachment to the fourth letter to Agnes. This German benediction to Agnes in turn resembles a comparable benediction addressed at Ermentrudis as found in a seventeenth-century Latin manuscript. The benediction to the poor sisters itself has survived in a fifteenth-century Medieval French manuscript, in two medieval Italian manuscripts, in some medieval Dutch manuscripts, in several Latin manuscripts and in the Chronica of Marco of Lisbon (Venice, 1582), Vol. I, l.8, chap. 34, p. 240. Cf. Claire d’Assise, Écrits. Introduction, texte latin, traduction, notes et index, ed. Marie-France Becker, Jean-François Godet, Thaddée Matura, Sources Chrétiennes 325 (Paris, 1985), 27-28, as well as Ubald d’Alençon, ‘Le plus ancien texte de la bénédiction, du privilège de la pauvreté et du testament de sainte Claire d’Assise’, Revue d’histoire Franciscaine 1 (1924), 469-482; D. de Kok, ‘S. Clarae Benedictionis textus neerlandici’, AFH 27 (1934), 387-398; Cf. H. Lippens, AFH 40 (1947), 290-291.]

 

Regula, or rather Forma professionis/Forma Vitae/Forma paupertatis (compiled between 1247 and 1252, and officially approved in November 1223). These can be found in the Opera omnia editions mentioned above. A.o. Claire d’Assise, Écrits. Introduction, texte latin, traduction, notes et index, ed. Marie-France Becker, Jean-François Godet, Thaddée Matura, Sources Chrétiennes 325 (Paris, 1985) 120-165. They also have been edited in old and new collections of legislative texts of the various Franciscan orders. Such as: Seraphicae Legislationis Textus Originales (Quaracchi, 1897), 49-76 (with the text of the bull of approval on pp. 2-3); Regulae et Constitutione Generales Monialium Ordinis S. Clarae (Rome, 1973) [Cf. E. Grau, ‘Die papstliche Bestätigung der Regel der hl. Klara (1253)’, Franziskanische Studien 35 (1953), 317-323. As a matter of fact, the rule of Clare never was called a Regula. It was commonly nown as the Forma (vitae/professionis etc.). This maybe was connected refusal after Lateran IV to accept new religious rules. Another way to overcome this hurdle was the explicit way in which this rule was presented as the forma viate as transmitted to Clara by Francesco d’Assisi. Originally, the rule did not have a chapter division. However, soon it was divided into twelve chapters (in analogy with the Regula Bullata of Francesco d’Assisi, which it uses almost in full (with exception of the chapter on preachers) and symbolising its evangelical character (referring back to the twelve Apostles). Clara is the first female religious leader known to have produced a full-blown rule of her own. Cf. also literature below! ]

 

Testament. This can be found in several Opera omnia editions mentioned above. A.o. Claire d’Assise, Écrits. Introduction, texte latin, traduction, notes et index, ed. Marie-France Becker, Jean-François Godet, Thaddée Matura, Sources Chrétiennes 325 (Paris, 1985) 166-185. They also have been edited in old and collections of legislative texts of the various Franciscan orders. Such as: Seraphicae Legislationis Textus Originales (Quaracchi, 1897), 273-280 (Testament), and first of all in in L. Wadding, Annales Minorum, ad. ann. 1253 no. 5.. [Like Francesco, Clara left behind a testament, retracing the origins of her life and her motivations, speaking of herself, Francesco, her sisters, her life in absolute poverty, and the special relation with the friars minor. As said before, there was for many years doubt concerning the autenticity of the testament, as for a long time no old manucript of the text could be found, and the text was in fact only available in L. Wadding, Annales Minorum, ad. ann. 1253 no. 5. However, in the twentieth century, several early manuscripts have been found that contain the testament (in the vernacular and in Latin), and several studies have appeared that have confirmed the authenticity of the text. See on these discussions Ch.A. Lainati, ‘testamento di S. Chiara’, in: Dizionario Francescano (Padua, 1984) col. 1827-1846; Claire d’Assise, Écrits. Introduction, texte latin, traduction, notes et index, ed. Marie-France Becker, Jean-François Godet, Thaddée Matura, Sources Chrétiennes 325 (Paris, 1985), 22-27 (which also presents the manuscripts, provides a stemma, and provides te argumentation behind the new edition on pp. 166-185. ]

 

Littera ad Ermentrudem. It would seem that Clara wrote at least two letters to Ermentrudis of Cologne, who after several pilgrimages had established a monastery of Poor Sisters and elsewhere. None of these letters have survived in full. In the Annales Minorum, Wadding presented a compilation in the shape of a single text (Cf. L. Wadding, Annales Minorum, ad. ann. 1257 suppl. no. 20 (Quaracchi, 1931), 90-91. This text can also be found in Claire d’Assise, Écrits. Introduction, texte latin, traduction, notes et index, ed. Marie-France Becker, Jean-François Godet, Thaddée Matura, Sources Chrétiennes 325 (Paris, 1985), 192-195. Cf. also: D. de Kok, ‘De Origine Ordinis S. Clarae in Flandria’ AFH 7 (1914), 234-246; H. de Hooglede, ‘Ermentrude et les origines des Clarisses en Belgique’, Neerlandica Franciscana 2 (1919), 67-84; A. Heysse, ‘Origo et progressus Ordinis Sanctae Clarae in Flandria’, AFH 37 (1944), 165-201.

 

important order documents

For the religious history of the order of Poor Clares, we have access to several rules (…., ….., the rule of Isabella of France, ….), papal bulls (defining order privileges, regulating the establishment of individual convents, decisions regarding the rule(s), and regulations on life style issues), reports and letters of visitators (the order had official visitators from 1218 onwards. The first visitator seems to have been the Cistercian monk Ambrosius (1218-1219/1220-1223)), rule commentaries etc. A range of such texts have been edited in the BF series, as well as in the Seraphicae Legislationes Textus Originales. Besides, a range of statutes for indivual Poor Clare convents (which can be compared with the provincial statutes within the male branch of the Franciscan order) and related documents have been edited elsewhere. See for instance AFH 6 (1913), 101-110 (Benvenuto Bughetti’s edition of Angelo de Clavasio’s late fifteenth century statutes for the Poor Clares of Romandiola and other convents), Franziskanische Studien 1 (1914), 356-362 (F. Doelle’s edition of ‘Die Statuten der Klarissen zu Weissenfels aus dem Jahre 1513’), La Verna 10 (1912-1913), 418-426 (S. Mencherini’s edition of the ‘Ordinazioni delle monache di S. Chiara Novella d’Arezzo compilate l’anno 1543’), and AFH 15 (1922), 71-102 (Livarius Oliger, ‘Documenta Originis Clarissarum Civitatis Castelli, Eugebii (a. 1223-1263) necnon Statuta Monasteriorum Perusiae Civitatisque Castelli (saec. XV) et S. Silvestri Romae (saec. XIII)’.) For issues of religious instruction, the Statuta monasterium Montislucis (Perusiae) et Clarissarum Civitatis Castetli, saec. XV, ed. L. Oliger, AFH 15 (1922), 93-98 and the Constitutiones a. Card. Iacobo de Columna pro monasterio S. Silvestri in Capite, Romae, conditae, saec XIII, ed. L. Oliger, AFH 15 (1922), 99-102 are of special interest. The 13th-century statutes of Cardinal Iacopo Colonna pay special attention to the performance of the Divine Office, the maintenance of silence, the conduct during meals, and the adherence of strict clausura. With regard to the Divine Office, the statutes state (ed. Oliger, 99): ‘Divinum Officium cum omni devotione et silentio celebretur, ad quod omnes sane die noctuque diligenter et studiose conveniant nec recedant usque ad finem absque urgente necessitate corporis aut obedientie mandato, exceptis officialibus communibus, et hoc tantum dum in communi officio sive servitio occupantur. Et ut idem officium devotius celebretur, due ordinentur, una ab uno choro et alia ab altero, que sollicite sint, ut officium tractim et distincte dicatur et exitent in officio dormientes…’ Laxity in performance is liable to punishment, which is stipulated in great detail. The same disciplinary emphasis can be found in the articles on silence, sleeping hours, and the community meals. With regard to the latter (ed. Oliger, 100): ‘Item in refectorio mane et sero non ponantur aut fiant nisi due mense; in prima mensa omnes sane venire teneantur et manducare, exceptis officialibus, que tunc temporis in communi servitio occupantur, infirme vero vel debiles in infirmaria deputate in communi refectorio non audeant manducare, sed in infirmeria (…) Summum silentium semper in prima mensa servetur mane et sero, ut divina lectio diligentius audiatur, quam non legi sed cantandi iubemus, ut ei devotius intendatur…’ The fifteenth century Perugia statutes are even more detailed. In ten articles, these statutes deal with: i.) Del divino offitio [p. 93:‘Imprima che tucte le suore che non ànno legitimo inpedimento vengano in chiesia al primo suono de ciascuna hora ad aparechiare il suo cuore laudare il Signore. Et quelle che sença legitima cagione tardasseno tanto che comenze a sonare la secunda, dica cinque Pater nostri in croce a la mensa. Et quando stesse tanto che fosse dicto l’inno o un psalmo, dica a la mensa in croce i tre primi psalmi de li psalmi penitentiali. Et chi per sua negligentia non ce vienne, faccia la disciplina e mangi in terra…’]; ii.) Del vestire; iii.) De la obedientia; iv.) Del sancto silentio; v.) De la colpa; vi.) De la mensa; vii.) Del dormire; viii.) De l’abbadessa; ix.) Di queste ordinationi [p. 97: ‘Item aciochè queste ordinatione meglio se observano, volemo che se legano omne mese una volta in presentia de tucte le suore. Et questo se faccia per obedientia.’]; x.) Questa è la forma del silentio [special rules and sanctions to ensure the observation of silence within the walls of the cloister] Comparable text can be found with regard to the late medieval and early modern period. Hence we can point to texts for the Portuguese Recollects: J. Meseguer Fernández, ‘Constituciones recoletas para Portugal, 1524 e Italia, 1526’, AIA 21 (1961), 459-489 [some parts of these texts go back to the mid-fifteenth century] We can also point to MS Lisbon, Arq. Nac. da Torre do Tombo, C.R. cx. dos Conventos indeterminados livro no. 7 (dated 1501), which, apparently in an Observant context, contains a Confirmatio Regule Fratrum Minorum (ff. 11-8r); Fórmula da profissão (in Portuguese, ff. 8v); Confirmaçam da regra dos fraires Meores (ff. 9-15r); Testamento que fez nosso padre sam francisco (ff. 15v-18r); Breviaçam dos statutos assy geeraáes como papáes fecta no convento de sca Maria de Jhu acerca de barcelona da provincia daragom (ff. 18r-43v); Testamentum beati patris nostri Francisci (ff. 44-45v); Littera pro electo discreto ad capitulum provinciale e Littera electionis gardiani (ff. 45v-46r); San Bernardino de Sena põeestes xxxiii capitulos em os quaes ho frade menor pode seer dicto proprietario (ff. 46r-48). The Portuguese MS Évora, Bibl. Pub. CXIII/1-143, em 120 contains in Portuguese the Innocent IV constitutions for the poor Clares, as well as Clare’s testament and related texts, including the constitutions of Colette of Corbie (see there).

literature

Z. Lazzeri, ‘De processu canonizationis sanctae Clarae’, AFH 5 (1912), 644-651; L. Oliger, ‘De origine regularum ordinis sanctae Clarae’, AFH 5 (1912), 181-209, 413-447; Z. Lazzeri, ‘Il processo di canonizzazione di S. Chiara d’Assisi’, AFH 13 (1920), 403-507; L. Bracaloni, ‘Il primo rituale francescano nel breviario di S. Chiara’, AFH 16 (1923), 71-88; Z. Lazzeri, ‘L’orazione delle cinque piaghe recitata da S. Chiara’, AFH 16 (1923), 246-249; Gratien de Paris, Histoire de la fondation et de l’évolution des frères mineurs au XIIIe siècle (Paris-Gembloux, 1928), 593-617; M. Fassbinder, ‘Untersuchungen über die Quellen zum Leben der hl. Klara von Assisi’, Franziskanische Studien 23 (1936), 296-335; A. van Dijk, ‘The breviary of Saint Clara’, Franciscan Studies 8 (1948), 25-46, 351-387; E. Grau, Leben und Schriften der hl. Klara von Assisi (Werl, 1952); L. Hardick, ‘Zur Chronologie im Leben der hl. Klara’, Franziskanische Studien 35 (1953), 174-210; E. Grau, ‘Die Regel der hl. Klara (1253) in ihrer Abhängigkeit von der Regel der Minderbrüder (1223)’, Franziskanische Studien 35 (1953), 211-273; I. Omaechevarría, Las Clarisas a través de los siglos (Madrid, 1972); Ch.. Lainati, ‘La Regola Francescana e il II° Ordine’, Vita Minorum 44 (1973), 227-249; L. Iriarte, Letra y espíritu de la Regla de Santa Clara (Valencia, 1975); J. Garrido, La forma de vida de Santa Clara (Aranzazu, 1979); Ch.A. Lainati, ‘Una ‘lettura’ di Chiara d’Assisi attraverso le Fonti’, in: Approccio storico-critico alle Fonti Francescane (Rome, 1979), 155-177; E. Grau, ‘Die Schriften der heiligen Klara und die Werke ihrer Biographen’, in: Movimento religioso femminile e francescanesimo nel secolo XIII (Assisi, 1980), 195-238; Leben und Schriften der heiligen Klara von Assisi (Werl, 1980²); Clara Gennaro, ‘Chiara, Agnese e le prime consorelle: dalle ‘pauperres dominae’ di S. Damiano alle Clarisse’, in: Movimento religioso femminile e francescanesimo nel secolo XIII (Assisi, 1980), 167-191; Introducción a Santa Clara de Asís, 2 Vols. (Saragossa, 1981); S. Lopez, ‘Lectura teologica del Testamento de Santa Clara’, Selecciones de Franciscanismo 11 (1982), 299-312; Introducción a Santa Clara de Asís, Curso de Santa Clara por corespondencia, 3 Vols. (Zaragossa, 1980-1981); R.C. Dhont, Claire parmi ses soeurs (Paris, 1985³); C.A. Lainati, ‘La Sacra Scrittura e le clarisse’, Forma Sororum 24 (1987), 133-149; E. Pásztor, ‘Maria nella religiosità femminile francescana del Duecento’, Frate Francesco 55 (1988), 91-95; Optatus Van Asseldonk, Maria, Francesco e Chiara. Una spiritualità per domani (Rome, 1989); Chiara di Assisi, Atti del XX Convegno internazionale Assisi, 15-17 ottobre 1992 (Spoleto, 1993); Paulette L’Hermite-Leclercq, ‘Autour de sainte Claire d’Assise: publications récentes’, Revue Mabillon n.s. 8 (1997), 295-300; Marco Bartoli, ‘La pedagogia di santa Chiara’, Forma Sororum 35 (1998), 322-335 & 36 (1999), 47-57 [an English version of this article appeared in Greyfriars Review 14 (2000), 111-132]; Claire d’Assise. Féminité et spiritualité>>>>; Cesare Vaiani, ‘Chiara nei suoi scritti’, Forma Sororum 36 (1999), 112-124, 215-228, 284-295, 357-363; Claire Marie Ledoux, Iniziazione a Chiara d’Assisi. La sua visione dell’uomo e del Cristo nelle sue lettere ad Agnese di Praga, Libri su Francesco e Chiara (Assisi, 1999); Catherine M. Mooney, ‘Imitatio Christi’ or ‘Imitatio Mariae’? Clare of Assisi and her interpreters’, in: Gendered Voices, 52-77; Aidan McGraith, ‘between charism and institution: The approval of the rule of Saint Clare in 1253’, Évangile aujourd’hui. Revue de spiritualité franciscaine 185 (2000), 177-202; Clara Bruins, Chiara d’Assisi come ‘altera Maria’. Le miniature della vita di santa Chiara nel manoscritto Thennenbach-4 di Karlsruhe, Iconographia franciscana 12 (Rome, 1999); Icones Clarae. Kunst aus dem Brixner Klarissenkloster-Arte dal convento delle clarisse di Bressanone, ed. Leo Andergassen (Brixen, 1999); Chiara Agnese Acquadro, ‘‘Saepe enim Dominus quod melius est minori revelat’ (Regula s. Clarae IV,18): un errore di lettura ormai vecchio di cinque secoli’, Collectanea Franciscana 71,3-4 (2001), 521-676; Edith van den Goorbergh & Theo Zweerman, Klara von Assisi-Licht aus der Stille. Zu ihren Briefen an Agnes von Prag (Kevelaer, 2001) [English version was published as: Light shining through a veil. On Saint Clare’s letters to Saint Agnes of Prague (Leuven, 2000)]; Martina Kreidler-Kos, Das Leben der Klara von Assisi. ‘Sei gepriesen, weil du mich erschaffen hast’ (Munich, 2003); Idem, Klara von Assisi. Schattenfrau und Lichtgestalt, Tübinger Studien zur Theologie und Philosophie, 17 (Basel, 2003²). For more recent literature, see the vita & miracula section.

For more up-to-date information, see our Franciscan Women Internet Database: (http://franwomen.sbu.edu/franwomen/default.aspx)

 

 

 

 

 

Clara Bugni (Chiara Bugni, fl. 15th cent.)

Poor Clare from Venice. Visionary. Her works as well as a vita have been published in Marco Da Lisbona, Croniche de gli ordini instituiti dal P.S. Francesco (Naples, second edition, 1680), Part IV, Vol. III, 751-909, and more recently in La vita e i sermoni di Chiara Bugni, Clarissa Veneziana (1471-1514), ed. Reinhold C. Mueller and Gabriella Zarri, Temi e Testi: Scritture nel Chiostro 89 (Rome: Edizioni di storia e letteratura, 2011). For more on this Poor Clare see the Franciscan Women internet Database.

 

 

 

 

 

Clarus Florentinus (Chiaro da Firenze, mid 13th cent.)

Franciscan canonist and papal penitentiary>>

manuscripts

Repertorium Juris Civilis et Canonici>>

Summa Casuum Decem Preceptorum>>

Viginti Casus Determinati in Curia Papae>>

literature

F.M. Henquinet, `Clair de Florence, o.f.m., canoniste et pénitencièr pontif. Vers le milieu du xiii siècle', AFH, 32 (1939), 3-48; M. Franceschini, DBI, 4 (Roma, 1962), 463-64.

 

 

 

 

 

Claudius Barrus (Claude Barre, Claude de Belmont, 1558-1629)

Franciscan friar from Belmont (Jura). Entered the Observant Franciscans and made his profession in 1576. Ordained priest in 1584. Studied theology in Paris and obtained the doctorate, after which he taught theology at Dole, where he also became guardian of the local Franciscan friary. During his guardianate, he restructured the convent and the library. Provincial minister in 1595 and auxiliary bishop of Besançon in 1616. In the same year he was consecrated as titular bishop of Andraville by Archbishop Ferdinand the Rye. Claude Barre was known as an efficacious preacher. He died at Dijon on October 16, 1629. Unknown to me whether works by him have survived.

literature

A. Castan, ‘Les évêques auxiliaires du siège métropolitain de Besançon’, Mémoires de la Société d’Émulation du Doubs, 5th ser. 1 (1876), 456-483; Eubel, IV, 83; L. Loye, Histoire de l’Église de Besançon (Besançon, 1902) III, 278-279; Dictionnaire Biographique de la France XVIII, 1302; DHGE XXIX, 1080.

 

 

 

 

Claudius Frassen (Claude Frassen, 1620 ( Péronne) - 26, 02, 1711, Paris)

OFM. French friar from the Péronne region, who entered the order at Péronne at the age of 17. Following his noviciate, he went to Paris, where he received the doctorate in theology in 1662. Before and after, he taught for many years at the Sorbonne. He was appointed general definitor in 1682, and acted several times as a councellor of Louis XIV of France. He was one of the most renowned Scotists of his age, whose works in France to a large extent replaced those of Bartholomaeus Mastrius. He died at Paris in February 1711, at the age of 92.

editions:

Conduite spirituelle pour une personne qui veut vivre saintement (Paris, 1667)/Conduite spirituelle pour une personne qui veut vivre saintement. Seconde edition. Augmentée et corrigée (Paris: Edme Couterot, 1674). Both these editions can now be accessed in digital fassion via Archive.org, Google Books and other digital portals. Several later editions followed in the course of the late 17th and 18th century.

Philosophica Academica, quam ex selectissimis Aristotelis et Doctoris Subtilis Scoti rationibus ac sententiis, 4 Vols. (Paris, 1668/Venice: Nicolaus Pezzzana, 1767). The 1767 edition can be accessed via Google Books.

Scotus Academicus. Seu Universa Doctoris Subtilis Theologica Dogmata, 12 Vols. (Paris: Jean Annison, 1672-1677/Rome: Rocco Bernabò, 1720-1722/Venice, 1744). A new edition in 12 Vols., also referencing autograph manuscript notes of Frassen kept in the Bibliothèque National of Paris was issued in Rome (Ex Typographia Sallustiana) between 1900 and 1902. This is Frassen's best-known work, and is considered one of the most lucid introductions to and elaboration of Scotist philosophical and theological viewpoints. Based on the titles of the eighteenth-century Rome edition, it would seem that the individual volumes cover the following topics:

I. De Deo in se subsistente

II. De Deo intelligente et volente

III. De Sanctissimae Trinitatis mysterio

IV. De divinae gratiae beneficio

V. De divini verbi incarnatione, 1

VI.De formatione, et ordinatione creaturarum corporalium

VII. De legibus

VIII. De eucharistia

IX. De ordine, et matrimonio

X. De sacramentis in genere

XI. De angelis

XII. De divini verbi incarnatione, 2

Nearly all volumes of the 17th-century Paris edition, as well as several volumes of the early 20th Rome edition can now be accessed via Archive.org, Google Books and other digital portals. All twelve volumes of the 1720-1722 Rome edition can be accessed via the Biblioteca Europea de Informazione e Cultura (BEIC) [http://gutenberg.beic.it]

Disquisitiones Biblicae, 4 Vols. (Paris, 1682-1695/Lucca: Joannes Riccomonis, 1770). Partially accessibe via Archive.org, Google Books and other digital portals.

Cursus Philosophiae (Paris, 1688/Venice, 1767).

Disquisitiones in Pentateuchum (Paris, 1705)/Disquisitiones Biblicae in Universum Pentateuchum, Reprint (BiblioLife, 2015).

La règle du tiers-ordre de la penïtence (...) Traduite et expliquée de nouveau par le R.P. Claude Frassen (...) Septième et derniere edition (...) (Paris: Pierre Witte, 1736).

literature

B. Garcia de Armellada, `El Escotismo de Claudio Frasssen en el tema del Sobrenatural', Bonaventuriana, Festschrift J.G. Bougerol (Rome, 1988), Vol. 2, 597-619; Jacob Schmutz, 'Frassen, Claude (1620-1711)', in: Dictionary of Seventeenth Century French Philosophers, ed. Luc Foisneau (London-New York: Thoemmes-Continuum, 2008) I, 500-504.

 

 

 

 

Claudius Vicarius (Claude Vicar, fl. second half 16th cent.)

OFM. French friar, active in the Grand Couvent de Paris.

editions

Petit Discours de L’Utilité des Voyages ou Pelerinages (1582). Vicar wrote this book at the request of the Queen, Louise of Lorraine, who went on pilgrimage to find a solution for her inability to conceive.

literature

Marianne Petra Ritsema van Eck, Custodians of Sacred Space: Constructing the Franciscan Holy Land through texts and sacri monti (ca. 1480-1650), PhD Thesis, University of Amsterdam (Amsterdam, 2017), passim.

 

 

 

 

Clemens Bontadosi (Clemente Bontadosi/Bentadosi/Bontadoti/Montedoti, d. 1594)

OFMConv. Italian friar from from Montefalco. Reached the magisterium theologiae (?) and became provincial minister of Umbria in 1568. At the general chapter of 1584, he was elected general of the Conventual branch of the order. He was appointed to the episcopal see of Nicastro on June 23, 1586. He died in 1594 and was buried in the Holy Conception chapel in his town of birth (Montefalco), which he had built during his lifetime. Mystical/catechetical author.

manuscripts/editions

Considerazione per i sacerdoti>> manuscript?

>>>>>

literature

Wadding, Annales Minorum (ed. Rome, 1931) XXXI, 109; G. Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d’Italia (Brescia, 1762) II, 3rd. part, 1696; J. Abate, ‘Series episcoporum conventualium’, Miscellanea Francescana 31 (Rome, 1931), 109; B. Bartolomasi, ‘Series chronologico-historica ministrorum provincialium et commissariorium generalium provinciae seraficae’, Miscellanea Francescana 32 (1932), >>; L. Jadin, ‘Bontadosi (Clemente)’, DHGE IX (1937), 1122-1123; DBI>>>>

 

 

 

 

 

Clemens de Lorenzo (Clemente Di Lorenzo d. 1631)

See: Gabriele Ingegneri, ‘Clemente Di Lorenzo [non Di Lazzaro] da Noto generale dei Cappuccini ’, Collectanea Franciscana 79 (2010), 517-571.

 

 

 

 

 

Clemens Dolera [Monilianus] (20, 06, 1501, Moneglia - 6, 01, 1568, Rome)

OFMObs. Cismontan general commissioner between 1547 and 1553. Minister general between 1553 and 1557. Became cardinal in 1557. Bishop of Foligno since 1560. Under his leadership were published the Franciscan statutes of Salamanca. Took part in the council of Trent. Active and opinionated publicist

editions:

Theologicarum institutionum compendium Clementis Moniliani Card. Arae Coeli (Foligno, 1562/ Rome 1565). The 1562 edition is accessible via Google Books.

literature:

A.Garuti, Dottrina ecclesiologica del cardinal Clemente Dolera (Rome, 1969); H.J. Sieben, Die katholische Konzilsidee von der Reformation bis zur Aufklärung (Paderborn, 1988); Christian Mouchel, Rome franciscaine. Essai sur l'histoire de l'éloquence dans l'Ordre des Frères Mineurs au XVIe siècle (Paris: Honoré Champion, 2001), 343ff.

 

 

 

 

Clemens Kobylina (Klemens Klimak/Klemens Kobylinski, d. 1483)

OFMObs. Polish friar.

literature

Bogumil Migdal, ‘Kobylinski Klemens’, Encyklopedia katolicka IX, 254.

 

 

 

 

Clemens Radyma (Klemens Ralmut/Klemens Radyma, d. 1562)

OFMObs. Polish friar

literature

Andrzej Obrusnik, ‘Klemens z Radyma, Ralmut OFMObs’, Encyklopedia katolicka IX, 118f.

 

 

 

 

Columbanus de Lucerna (Columbano da Lucerna, fl. late 17th cent.)

OFMCap.

literature

O. Schmucki, ‘Viaggio al Capitolo generale dei Cappuccini celebrato a Roma nel 1698: la relazione del cappuccino Columbano da Lucerna’, Helvetia Franciscana 42:1 (2013), 9-52.

 

 

 

 

Columbanus Gillottus (Colombano Gillotto, d. ca. 1721)

Franciscan tertiary and spiritual author.

literature

DSpir VI, 392-393.

 

 

 

 

`Columbinus' (fl. ca. 1300)

Maybe a Franciscan apocalyptic author, known for his millenarianism

manuscripts

>>

literature

E.A.R. Brown & R.E. Lerner, `On the Origins and Import of the Columbinus Prophecy', Traditio, 45 (1989/90), 219-56.

 

 

 

 

 

Concordus de Gernsheim (d. 1772)

OFMCap. Active in the Rhineland area. Author of categistical texts…

literature

DSpir II, 1334.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conradus Bebulor (d. ca. 1475)

OFMConv. Provincial of the Cologne province.>>

manuscripts

Sermones Aliquot Super Illud Gen.:>>>

Vocavit Illum Lingua Aegyptiaca Salvatorem:>>

Tractatus Praedicabiles pro Adventu:>>>

literature

Zawart, 330>>

 

 

 

 

 

Conradus Böhmlin (ca. 1380 - 26, 06, 1449)

OFMConv. Entered the order in Eßlingen convent. Switched to Thann before 1406. Custos and lector in Schwabien, guardian and provincial in the Northern German province (provincial minister between 1438 and 1449). Lector in the Eßlingen convent. Died there on 26 June 1449. Renowned for his sermons, held at Strasbourg and elsewhere. At least 47 Latin sermons for the advent period, as well as ca. 1000 German sermons still survive. His sermons are inspired by the homiletic works of Marquard of Lindau.

manuscripts

Eucharist sermon `Venite ad me omnes': Munich, UB (deutsch) 8° 280 ff. 115v-130r (1448) & 8° 282 ff. 156v-170v; Munich Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Cgm 357 ff 193-197; Munich Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Cgm 448 dd. 117r-128v; Munich Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Cgm 457 ff. 324r-337v.

Collectura fr. Conradi Boemli Lectoris Predicata Hallae (Suev.) Anno Domini MCCCCIX: Luzern, Kantonsbibliothek MS 9.

Sermo ‘Unus Est Magister Vester Christus’: MS Berlin Germ. Quart. 206 ff. 200v-207v [Sermon held in Strasbourg in 1436. In this sermon by ‘herre Cunrat Beumole, lesemeyster zu den Barfüßer an dem fritage noch dem ostertage zu sand Johans zu dem Grünenwerde über das wort: Unus est magister vester Christus. Mt. 23o und seit vil von dem touffe und von dem heiligen sacramente.’ Was a concluding sermon for the Lenten period. Amounts to a catechistic sermon on the various sins and their influences, the Passion and the altar sacrament, the resurrection, and guidelines for a perfect evangelical life.]

Sermo ‘Christus Passus est pro Nobis’: MS Berlin Germ. Quart. 206 ff. 207v-215v. [Sermon held in Strasbourg, 1436, ‘…predie (…) herre Conrat Boemele an dem fritage XIII tag noch ostern, zu sand Johanse über die epistel Petri 2o Christus passus est pro nobis reliquens exemplum ut sequamini vestigia eius, und seit von dem lyden unsers herren…’ At the occasion of the festivities concerning the spear and nails, the passion instruments of Christ, Conrad provides here a passion sermon, explaining what Christ has suffered, why he has suffered it for us and how it is an example for our own life.]

Predig von dem hailigen sacrament & Predig von deme liden unseres herren christi Jhesu: MS Maihingen, Fürstliche Öttingen-Wallersteinsche Bibliothek MS III, 1 4° 9 f. 80a [‘Dyß predige haut getän brueder Conratt bömlin Ain barfüß zu Straußburg. Disß ist ain predig von dem hailigen sacrament etc. Venite ad me omnes, qui laboratis et onerati estis, ego reficiam vos (Mat. 11, 28)’], f. 89a [‘Diß predig haut gemachett und getän Brueder Conratt bömlin ain barfues ze Strasburg. Diß ist ain predig von deme liden unseres herren christi jhesu.’]. The manuscript was made in the reformed Dominican monastery of Kirchheim im Ries, and is written by Steffanus May. Aside from Conrad’s two sermons, the manuscript contains a series of small treatises on the spiritual life.

Predigten:>>

Traktat über die sechs Eigenschaften Gottes: Stuttgart Würtemb. Landesb. Hs. Der ehem. Hofbibliothek HB I 203 ff. 116r-117v

Dictum über den Verlust der Keuschheit: Stuttgart Würtemb. Landesb. Hs. Der ehem. Hofbibliothek HB I 203 ff. 117v

editions:

>>>Paul Gerhardt Völker, Die deutschen Schriften des Franziskaners Konrad Bömlin, I: Üeberlieferung und Untersuchung, Münchener Texte und Untersuchungen zur deutschen Literatur des Mittelalters, 8 (Munich, 1964).

literature:

Landmann, ‘Zum Predigtwesen der Straßburger Franziskanerprovinz in der letzten Zeit des Mittelalters’, Franziskanische Studien 15 (1928), 104; Volker Honemann, ‘Bömlin, Konrad (um 1380-1449)’, Lexikon des Mittelalters II (1983), 390-391; Georg Steer, ‘Bömlin, Konrad’, Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters. Verfasserlexikon I (1978), 935-937; Viola Tenge-Wolf, `Bömlin', LThK, 2 (1994), 568; Immo Eberl, ‘Bömlin, Konrad’, Dizionario Storico della Svizzera, ed. Marco Jorio et al. (Locarno: Armando Dadò Editore, 2002) II, 491a.

 

 

 

 

Conrad Clinge (Conrad Klinge/Konrad Klinge, ca. 1483, Nordhausen (?) - 1556, Erfurt)

OFMConv. German friar from Nordhausen (Thüringen). Studied theology in Erfurt, where he became doctor of theology in 1520. Custos of Thüringen. Guardian of the Franciscan convent of Erfurt, cathedral preacher (from 1530 onwards until his death), and preacher at the court of the Counts of Mansfeld. Conrad died at Erfurt on March 10, 1556. Most of his sermons probably are lost. His theological works were printed after his death in five folio volumes (prepared for the printing press by his friend Georg Witzel, pastor of Eisleben (d. 1573). Most importent of these works are his Loci Communes Theologici pro Ecclesia Catholica, which received several editions, and shows Clinge’s Occamist theological views. Clinge also wrote a Catechismus Catholicus, a Summa Doctrinae Christianae Catholicae, De Securitate Conscientiae, and the Confutationes mendaciorum Adversus Librum. Clinge made a name as defender of the Catholic faith in and around Erfurt, confronting Lutheran pastors in Erfurt as well as the Erfurt city council, which had evangelical leanings. At the same time, Clinge, cautiously tried to incorporate reformist ideas concerning predestination and justification in main stream catholic thought. Through his published works, Clinge had sigificant influence on later generations of Catholic opinion makers.

editions

Loci Communes (Cologne, 1559/1560/1562/1565/1580) & (Paris, 1563/1565/1567/1574)

Summa Doctrinae Christianae Catholicae (Cologne, 1562 & 1570) [together with the Catechismus Catholicus]

Catechismus Catholicus, summam christianae institutionis IIII libris succinctum complectens. Item authoris ejusdem aliud insigne volumen inscriptum Summa Theologica, hoc est Epitome seu Compendium doctrinae christianae catholicae (Cologne: Haer. Arnold. Byremanni, 1562 & 1570)

De Securitate Conscientiae Catholicorum (Cologne, 1563)

Confutatio Mendaciorum a Lutheranis adversus Librum Imperii seu Interim Editorum (Cologne, 1563)

literature

Der Katholik 74 (1894), 146-163; H. Hilgers, Der Index der verbotenen Bücher (Freiburg in Breisgau, 1904), 520; K. Eubel, Geschichte der Kölnischen Minoriten-Ordens Provinz (Cologne, 1906), 21, 299-300; H. Bücker, ‘Der Erfurter Domprediger Dr. Konrad Klinge und seine Stellung zur Reformation’, Franziskanische Studien 10 (1923), 177-198; G. Haselbeck, Urkunden, Akten, Briefe und Chronikalische Aaufzeichnungen zur Geschichte dder Thüringischen Ordensprovinz (Fulda, 1925) I, 2-4; H. Bücker, ‘Jugend und Studienzeit des Franziskaners Konrad Klinge’, Franziskanische Studien 15 (1928), 252-271; H. Bücker, ‘Dr. Konrad Klinge, der Führer der Erfurter Katholiken zur Zeit der Glaubensspaltung’, Franziskanische Studien 17 (1930), 273-297; DThCat. III, 243; J. Lortz, Die Reformation in Deutschland (Breiburg in Breisgau, 1940) II, 176; Kirchengeschichtliche Studien P.M. Bihl Dargeboten (Colamr, 1942), 187-188; L. Meier, Die Barfüsserschule, 58; J. Beumer, ‘Ein Beispiel katholischer Zusammenarbeit während der Reformationszeit’, Franziskanische Studien 49 (1967), 373-383; Catholicisme VI, 1457-1458; Bio-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon IV, 60-61; H.-Chr. Rickauer, Rechtfertigung und Heil. Die Vermittlung von Glaube und Heilshandeln in der Auseinandersetzung mit der reformatorischen Lehre bei Konrad Klinge 1483/84-1556, Erfurter Theologische Studien, 53 (Leipzig, 1986) [review in Collectanea Francescana 57 (1987), 362-364; H.-Ch. Rickauer, `Glaube und Heilshandeln. Zur theologischen Auseinandersetzung des Erfurter Franziskaners K. Klinge mit der reformatorischen Lehre', in: Denkender Glaube in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Festschrift aus Anlaß der Gründung der Universität Erfurt vor 600 Jahren und aus Anlaß des 40jährigen Bestehens des philos.-theol. Studiums Erfurt, ed. W. Ernst & K. Feiereis, Erfurter theologische Studien, 63 (Leipzig, 1992), 55-70; Ernst Pulsfort, 'Klinge, Conrad', Bio-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon IV (1992), 60f.; Stephan Fitos, Zensur als Misserfolg. Die Verbreitung indizierter deutscher Druckschriften in der zweiten Hälfte des 16. Jahrhunderts (Frankfurt/M.-Berlin-Bern-Bruxelles-Wien, Peter Lang Verlag, 2000). [cf. Review inTheol. Lit. Ztg. 126 (2001), 1170-72. It also deals with Conrad Klinge † 1556]; R. Aubert, ‘Klinge (Konrad)’, DHGE (2007) XXIX, 286; Joannes Schlageter, Die sächsischen Franziskaner und ihre theologische Auseinandersetzung mit der frühen deutschen Reformation, Franziskanische Forschungen, 52 (Münster: Achendorff, 2012), 232-245; Volker Honemann, ‘Das mittelalterliche Schrifttum der Franziskaner der Sächsischen Ordensprovinz unter besonderer Berücksichtigung deutschsprachiger Zeugnisse’, in: Geschichte der Sächsischen Franziskanerprovinz, 1: Von den Anfängen bis zur Reformation, ed. Volker Honemann (Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2015), 714-715.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conrad de Bondorf (Konrad von Bonndorf, c. 1430 - 4 January, 1510)

Friar from Southern Germany. Probably born c. 1430 in Bonndorf (Southern part of the Schwarzwald). First education in the Franciscan custodial school of the Villingen convent. Thereafter lectorate studies in Italy (maybe Rome, maybe Padua or Bologna), where he would have met the later Pope Innocent VIII. In the 1470s he is engaged in the theology degree program (Baccalaureus Formatus in Straßbourg, 1479), and he becomes doctor theologiae at Padua university in 1482. Although he sometimes returns to academic life (as can be deducted from his immatriculation at the University of Freiburg in Breisgau in 1492), he is foremost engaged in matters of order administration. In 1483, he becomes vicar of the Upper Germany province, and custus of the Bodensee custody. Several times, he travels for order matters to Italy. Is elected provincial minister of the Upper Germany province in 1498, a function he kept until his death on January 4, 1510. Due to his administrative functions, Bonnhof’’s life is rather well-documented in order histories, as well as in convent charters dealing with convent reforms/building activities and the dispensation of statutes and privileges to tertiaries. To further his administrative career (especially to get elected as provincial minister in 1498), he sought the support of the Observants, promising them his support. Apparently, he did not keep this promise after his election (Glassberger, Chronica, AF II, 520). This incident, as well as other ones, would suggest that Bondorf did not shy away from manipulation and self-promotion (cf. Glassberger, Chronica, AF II, 515, 549; Eubel, (1886), 64-66, 167; Alemania Franciscana Antiqua 8 (1962), 53 & 14 (1970), 217) His administrative activities show in the production/confirmation of statutes for tertiaries and visitation manuals. Several of these have been edited in Alemania Franciscana Antiqua 10 (1964), 16ff and Alemania Franciscana Antiqua 14 (1970), 184ff. According to chroniclers like Luke Wadding and Berard Müller, Bondorf was a prolific writer. They ascribe to him for instance a treatise on Duns Scotus’ Comm. In IV Sententiarum, as well as disputed questions on the Trinity (both in relation to his degree obligations at the Straßbourgh studium). Several contemporary theologians also mention his erudition (Jacob Sprenger) and/or consult him on exegetical questions (Geiler von Kaysersberg). Many of his writings would have ended up in the Villingen convent, where they have disapeared without a trace (maybe they were destroyed when the Villingen convent was closed down in 1794). None of Bondorf’s Latin writings seem to have survived. We only have four of his private letters (of a very personal tone, written in German) addressed to the Poor Clare Klara von Rietheim (a Franciscan nun of noble descent, who lived in the convent of Söflingen, and, after 1482, when that convent was forcefully reformed, in the Paradise convent of Schaffhausen). To him is also ascribed a German translation of Bonaventure’s Legenda Major (Kurt Ruh (1963) & VL² V, 144-145 maintains that Sibilla von Bondorf, the Poor Clare who usually is mentioned as the translator, is merely the scribe, and that the translation was made by Conrad).

manuscripts

Briefe: Stuttgart, Hauptstaatsarchiv Kl. Söflingen Büschel 54. >>Since 1970 the letters seem to be in Ludwigsburg, Staatsarchiv Sign. B 509, Bü 2; Ulm, Stadtarchiv, Veesenmeyersche Urkundensammlung No. 299. These letters apparently were confiscated by the urban authorities of Ulm, when they forced the Poor Clares of Söflingen out of their convent as they did not want to be reformed along Observant lines.

(?) German Legenda Major translation: London, British Library cod. Add. 15710 ff. 3r-247v (produced in Freiburg in Breisgau, c. 1478)

editions

Briefe, edited: in A. Birlinger, ‘Amores Söflingenses’, Alemannia 3 (1875), 145-147 (two letters, re-edited by Miller under no. 38 and 39); G. Steinhausen, Deutsche privatbriefe des Mittelalters (1907) II, no. 51-54; M. Miller, Die Söflinger Briefe und das Klarissenkloster Söflingen im Spätmittelalter, Diss. (Tübingen, 1940), 198-209 (letters 38-41).

(?) German Legenda Major translation, edited in: D. Brett-Evans, Bonaventuras Legenda Sancti Francisci in der Übersetzung der Sibilla von Bondorf, TspMA 12 (1960).

Das Kreuzbild, das zu Franziskus und zu Klaras Mutter Sprach, trans. Johannes Schneider, in: Vena vivida - Lebendige Quelle. Texte zu Klara von Assisi und ihrer Bewegung I: Deutsche und niederländische Zeugnisse zur hl. Klara, Werkstatt Franziskanische Forschung, 2 (Münster: Fachstelle Franziskanische Forschung, 2008), 161-163

literature

K. Eubel, Geschichte der oberdeutschen Minoritenprovinz (1886), 167, 345-350; Ch. Roder, ‘Die Franziskaner zu Villingen’, Freiburger Diözesan-Archiv n.s. 32 Neue Folge 5 (1904), 232-312 (esp. 254f); E. Landmann, ‘Zum Predigtwesen der Straßburger Franzikanerprovinz in den letzten Zeit des Mittelalters’, Franziskanische Studien 15 (1928), 108-110; M. Miller, Die Söflinger Briefe und das Klarissenkloster Söflingen im Spätmittelalter, Diss. (Tübingen, 1940), 90-93, 166f; Kurt Ruh, ‘Rezension über Brett-Evans’, PBB 85 (1963), 273-279; K. Ruh, ‘Konrad von Bondorf’, Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters. Verfaserlexikon² V (1985), 141-145.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conrad Grütsch (Gritsch, ca. 1408/9 - ca. 1475)

OMConv. Born in Basel. Entered the order before or in 1423. Between 1424 and 1429, he studied philosophy at the studium of Strasbourg. Thereafter, he studied in Paris and Vienna (1435-1437), where he pursued the lectorate program in the order’s internal studia. Later documents call him baccalaureus theologiae, suggesting that he pursued degree studies as well and received the title of bachelor of theology within the order. Around 1441, he is active as lector in Zürich, and takes part in the council of Basel (supportive of pope Felix V?). In 1447, he is found as custos and lector in Mulhouse. For one winter term (1451/2), Conrad is matriculated at the university of Heidelberg in the theology degree program (to read the Sentences pro gradu (for his bachelor degree?). Therafter, he is found as lector in Basel (?), Bern (1456), and Burgdorf (?), and as custos, lector, preacher, and master of the tertiaries in Fribourg (Switzerland; 1458-1461), and again as lector at the Mulhouse convent (1467-1468). He died before 1475. From his own hand we have interesting student manuscripts with philosophical and theological extracts that reflect his studies at Strasbourg between 1425 and 1429 [MS Fribourg Cordelier 43, containing in Conrad’s own handwriting the following extracts: Universalia (work of Porphyry, ff. 5r-24r), De Nominibus Dei (ff. 24v-27v & 196r-198r), Praedicamenta (ff. 29r-64v), Metaphysica Magistri Nicolai Boneti (ff. 65r-146v), Metaphysica Magistri Petri Thome Ordinis Minorum (ff. 147r-195v), De Transcendentalibus Francisci de Maronis (ff. 198v-203v), Aliqua Quaestio Francisci de Maronis [Utrum ens secundum eandem rationem formalem conveniat Deo et Creature] (ff. 204r-211r), De Universali et Causa Francisci de Mayronis (ff. 211v-214r), Tractatus de Distinctione et Simplicitate Francisci de Mayronis (ff. 214v-219v), De Modis Intrinsecis Francisci de Mayronis (ff. 220r-232r); MS Fribourg Cordelier 93, containing one treatise in Conrad's own writing hand, between other works. On ff. 97r-132v we find his 1429 copy of the Tabula super Textum Libri Sententiarum Edita de mandato Sanctissimi in Christo Patris et Domini Johannis Papae 22. a Fratre Francisco Toti de Perusio (…)] Concerning Conrad’s student years there also are some interesting testimonials from the lector and the guardian of Vienna [MS Fribourg, Cordelier 76 f. 124r], dating from 20 February 1437, suggesting that Conrad had finished the lectorate program at the Vienna studium after studies at the Franciscan studium in Paris. Apparently, Conrad was not on friendly terms with the Observance, even though he shared their pastoral outlook, and was renowned for his preaching. From his later teaching and preaching years (1440s to 1460s) we have several scholastic sermon collections, explicitly compiled for the benefit of other friars. They exhibit all the characteristics of scholastic sermon collections, replete with questions, subdivisions, definitions and exempla from a wide range of authorities. His most succesful sermon collections have survived and have been printed under the name of his younger brother Johan Grütsch (a secular clerc, canon of the Sankt Peter at Basel, doctor in canon law at the University of Heidelberg and professor of the University of Basel from 1460 onwards. Rector of the University of Basel in 1466).

manuscripts [for detailed descriptions of the mss see Murith, Jean et Conrad Grütsch de Bâle, pp. 38-75.]

Quadragesimale & Registrum de Evangeliorum et Epistolarum Thematibus atque Introductionibus; (formerly attributed to Johan Grütsch; probably written between 1440 and 1444): Basel, Univ. Bibl. Bas. A V 7; Melk, Monastic library Mell. 133; Vat.Lat. 384; Colmar, Bibl. consistoriale Colm. 1953; Engelberg (Schwitzerland) Monastic Library Eng. 232 [Quadragesimale on ff. 1ra-295ra; Registrum de Evangeliorum et Epistolarum Thematibus on ff. 297ra-344va; [small] Commune Sanctorum ff. 344vb-349rb; Registrum de Sanctis, ff. 349va-355rb; Tabula Materiarum Alphabetica ff. 356ra-367ra; Tabula Introductionum, ff. 368ra-370va; Tabula Exemplorum, ff. 371ra-372va]; Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibl. Helmst. 379; Munich Clm. 3540 [Quadragesimale on ff. 1r-429; Registrum on ff. 429ra-464vb], 8825 [ff. 71ra-117va: Quadragesimale Abbreviatum] & 26705 [Quadragesimale ff. 1ra-236va; Registrum ff. 236va-254ra; De Festivitatibus Sanctorum Principalium ff. 254ra-55rb]. The Quadragesimale part consists of 50 sermons for Lent, mostly taking the Gospel reading of each day as thematic point of departure. The Registrum contains sermon designs and introductions for all sun- and feast days of the ecclesiastical year, with references to those parts of the Quadragesimale that elaborate several of these designs more fully. The work clearly is meant to function as handbook for preachers, and presents many useful citations from the Bible, the Fathers, clasical and more recent authors, as well as a wide range of exempla on natural history and mythology drawn from (predominantly Franciscan?) exempla collections.

Quadragesimale & Opus Sermonum de Tempore & Alphabetum Sermonum (c.1454): Würzburg, Bibl. Minorum/Bibl. des Franziskanerklosters Herb. I 38 [Quadragesimale ff. 7ra-238va; Opus Sermonum de Tempore ff. 239ra-282vb (-352vb). On ff. 353ra-371vb we find the Tractatus de SS. Sacramento Eucharistiae Marquardi de Lindau [see on that O. Bonmann, Franz. Stud., 21 (1934), 331] ]; Fribourg, Schweiz, Cordelier/Franziskanerbibl. 23 [Autograph. Alphabetum Sermonum and the Opus Sermonum with several indexes and parts of the Quaresimal collection found in works formerly ascribed to Johan on ff. 2va-306vb & Registrum Alphabeticum Exemplorum on ff. 307ra-321va]. The Quadragesimale contains 51 sermons (49 for Lent and two for Easter). Most themes derived from the corresponding Gospel readings for the day. The 54 sermons in the Opus Sermonum de Tempore likewise derive their themes from the appropriate Gospel readings. The Alphabetum presents an alphabetically ordered material collection for 217 thematical sermons.

editions

Quadragesimale Fratris Johannis Gritsch de Basilea, Ordinis Fratrum Minorum, Doctoris Eximii, per totum temporis anni spatium deserviens cum thematum evangeliorum et epistolarum introductionibus et tabula peroptima (Nuremberg: Johann Sensenschmidt and Andreas Frisner, not after 1472/Nuremberg: 1475/Ulm: Johann Zeiner de Rutlingen, 1475/Strassburg: [Drucker der Vitas Patrum], 1484 etc. etc.) [in all more than 34 editions of Conrad Grütsch's Quadragesimale have survived, and they are not all completely the same (see also the 2016 study of Pietro Delcorno). For a first overview, see Hain, 8057-8082 & Massa (1966), 31, 139-142]. At first sight, it would seem that MS Würzburg Bibl. Minorum Herb. I 38 or a similar manuscript provided the main basis for the initial edition.

literature

F. Landmann, ‘Zum Predigtwesen der Straßburger Franziskanerprovinz (…)’, Franziskanische Studien 14 (1927); F. Landmann, ‘Die spätmittelalterliche Predigt der Franziskanerkonventualen (…)’, Archiv für elsässische Kirchengeschichte 5 (1930), 19-88; P. Lachat, Das Barfüsserkloster Burgdorf (Burgdorf, 1955); André Murith, Jean et Conrad Grütsch de Bâle (Fribourg/Schweiz, 1940); J. Jordan, Le couvent des cordeliers de Fribourg 1256-1956 (Fribourg/Schweiz, 1956), 22ff; Alemania Franciscan Antiqua VI (1960), 19f; W. Massa, Die Eucharistiepredigt am Vorabend der Reformation (Diss. Theol.), Veröffentlichungen des Missionspriesterseminars S. Augustin, Siegburg, 15 (Bonn, 1966); André Derville, ‘Gruetsch (Conrad)’, DSpir VI, 1083-1085; Christine Stöllinger, ‘Grütsch, Conrad’, Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters. Verfasserlexikon III2, 291-294 & XI, 567; DHGE XXII (1988), 434; Franz Egger, ‘Grütsch, Konrad’, Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz V, 775 & Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse VI, 37; Nigel Palmer, 'Bacchus und Venus', in: Literatur und Wandmalerei 2: Konventionalität und Konversation, ed. Eckart Conrad Lutz, Johanna Thali & René Wetzel (Tübingen, 2005), 189-235; Pietro Delcorno, In the Mirror of the Prodigal Son: The Pastoral Uses of a Biblical Narrative (ca. 1200-1550), PhD Thesis Radboud University (Nijmegen: Bookbuilders, 2015), 198-206; Pietro Delcorno, ‘‘Christ and the soul are like Pyramus and Thisbe’: An Ovidian Story in Fifteenth-Century Sermons’, Medieval Sermon Studies 60:1 (2016), 37-61 (esp. 43-50);

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conradus de Marchia (Konrad von der Mark, d. 1353)

Norbert Reimann, ‘Konrad von der Mark († 1353), Kanoniker, Ritter und Franziskaner. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Klosters Clarenberg in (Dortmund-)Hörde’, Franziskanische Studien 54 (1972), 168-183.

 

 

 

 

 

Conradus de Monte Puellarum (Conrad von Megenberg, 1309-1374) not a Franciscan?

>> As David Sheffler of the University of Wisconsin kindly pointed out, he should be identified with the anti-mendicant author Konrad von Megenberg (several of whose works have been edited by Sabine Krüger in the MGH Staatsschriften des späteren Mittelalters (1992)). I will try to verify this as soon as possible.

manuscripts

Liber Naturae: a.o. Vat. Pal. Lat. 1382; Vat.Lat. 10064

Buch der Natur (versio operis Bartholomaei Anglici): Munich, UB (deutsch) 2° 605 ff. 1ra-198rb (15th cent.); Munich Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Cgm 398 ff. 153r-222v & 233r-248v (15th c.); Munich Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Cgm 427 ff. 27r-64v (15th c.); Munich Bayerische Staatsbibliothek 467 ff. 1-79v.

for more mss see H. Ulmschneider, Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertums und deutsche Literatur, 123 (1994), 309-333; D. Kudorfer, Scriptorium, 50 (1996), 102]

editions

Gerold Hayer, Konrad von Megenberg, ‘Das Buch der Natur.’ Untersuchungen zu seiner Text- und Überlieferungsgeschichte (Tübingen, 1998).

literature

O. Weijers, Le travail intellectuel à la faculté des arts de Paris: textes et maîtres (ca. 1200-1500), II: Répertoire des noms commençant par C-F (Turnhout, 1996), 40-42.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conrad de Offida (1237, Offida - 1306, Bastia (Assisi)), beatus

Tried to live a simple and reclusive life as a friar, devoting himself to contemplation (in Forano, Portiuncula, La Verna, Rivotorno). He distinguished himself through ectatic behavior and penitential preaching. His friendship with the old comrades of Francis (Leo c.s.) made him into a guardian of the old and `pure' Franciscan life. He was highly esteemed in spiritual circles. He therefore was asked by Olivi in 1295, after the retreat of pope Celestine V, to uphold the unity of the order. Conrad's seclusive ways and lack of polemic stamina kept him free from overly close attachments to schismatics (the pauperes eremitae around Angelo Clareno), and he was able to clear himself before the minister general John of Murro against charges of this kind. Conrad and John even became friends. In 1320 his body was kidnapped and brought to Perugia, where it was venerated in the Oratorio di S. Bernardino. In 1817 his cult was confirmed.

editions and sources:

Fioretti di S. Francesco, ch. 42-44; Wadding, Annales, 6, 84-87; Verba Fr. Conradi, ed. P. Sabatier, in: Opuscules de critique historique, I (Paris, 1903); Vita Fr. Conradi, Analecta Franciscana, 3, 422-428; P.I. Olivi de Renuntiatione Coelestini V. Quaesto et Epistola, ed. L. Oliger, AFH, 11 (1918), 309-373.

literature

Michele Faloci Pulignani, 'Il b. Corrado da Offida', Miscellanea francescana di storia, di lettere, di arti 15 (1914), 14-16; Bartolomeo Bartolomasi, 'Memorie storiche del b. Corrado da Offida', Miscellanea francescana di storia, di lettere, di arti 15 (1914), 16-21, 54-57, 73-79, 114-121, 152-157 & 16 (1915), 22-25, 175-179, 159-164; D. Burr, Olivi and Franciscan Poverty (Philadelphia, 1989); J. Schlageter, `Das Heil der Armen und das Elend der Reichen. Olivis Frage nach der höchsten Armut', Franziskanische Forschungen, 34; LThK II, 1300; Elvio Lunghi, 'Il beato Corrado da Offida e una icona della Madonna per S. Damiano di Assisi', in: Domini vestigia sequi: miscellanea offerta a p. Giovanni M. Boccali ofm. per il suo 75. di vita e 50. di sacerdozio, ed. Cesare Vaiani (Santa Maria degli Angeli (Perugia), 2003), 517-542.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conradus de Quervordia>>

>>

manuscripts

Summae Collectionum, Libri III: Luneburg, Ratsbücherei, Theol. 2° 50, 51, 52 & 53 (14th cent.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conrad de Saxonia (Conradus de Brunopoli/Conrad Holtnicker/Conradus Holzingarius/Konrad von Sachsen, d. 1279)

Born in Braunschweig, Saxonia from noble ancestors (Holtnickel/Holzinger family). Famous preacher and renowned theologian, well-respected for his strict but peaceful adherence to the Franciscan precepts of evangelical perfection. Probably studied at Paris (lectorate program?). Lector of theology at Hildesheim between c. 1245 and 1247; Asked to become provincial vicar to substitute for Gottfried, and shortly thereafter at the provincial chapter of Halle (1247) elected (fifth) provincial minister of the Franciscan province of Saxony, a position he kept until 1262. Re-elected as provincial minister in 1272. He died in the Franciscan convent of Bologna, on 30 May 1279 (probably due to kidney failure), on his way to Assisi to be present at the general chapter. Conrad wrote several large and popular sermon collections, as well as a very succesful Speculum Beatae Mariae Virginis (a lengthy catechetical explanation for didactic purposes, which for a long time was attributed to Bonaventure. The work has survived in at least 247 mss). To him are also ascribed biblical commentaries, a Sentences commentary, and a commentary on the Pater Noster. These latter ascriptions are probably not correct. His confirmed literary production, and more in particular his sermons, are bound up with his task as lector, and intend to provide fellow friars with an adequate homiletic training. Many of his surviving sermons, eventually edited between 1261 and 1272 in several collections (De tempore, De Sanctis, De commune Sanctorum, Quadragesimale, Sermones ad religiosos, Sermones super Salutationem BMV, Collationes super Ave/Speculum BMV), are well-designed sketches with scholastic divisions (cf. John of Wales's Ars Predicandi?), suited for homiletic use by other Franciscan preachers. Conrad used spiritual exegetical techniques to find useful instructive meanings for the selected biblical themata. Many of his sermons have an emblematical character and focus on practical religious instructions without apocalyptic overtones. His sermons de tempore would form the basis for the preaching of the so-called Schwarzwälder Prediger and others. For a short characterisation of his homiletic teachings, see also Girotto (1952), Schlageter (2015), and Honemann (2015).

manuscripts

Commentarius in loca S. Scripturae: Harvard University (Cambridge, Mass.), Houghton Library MS Lat 5.. This manuscript can be consulted at: http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/6650253

Sermones de Festis/Sermones de Commune Sanctorum (22 to 24 sermons): MS Troyes 1494, ff. 259ra-277ra (manuscript also contains sermons of Gilbert of Tournai and of Aldobrandinus de Toscanella OP, as well as De Articulis Fidei of Thomas Aquinas). Cf. Schneyer, Rep. I, 771-776.; Martinez 31f.

Sermones de Sanctis (c. 106 sermons) Siena, G.IX.19; Cremona, Bibl. Gov., 13; Vat. Lat. 1279; Solothurn Zentralbibl. S.I. 240 ff. 1-18r (an. 1472); Clm, 2946; Lambach, 190; Subiaco, Bened. 161; Graz, 419; Vat. Borges. 180; Padua, Anton. 472; Copenhagen Thott. 63; Assisi, Comm. 464 [of these are edited 3 sermons on Anthony, in: V. Gambosco: `I tre panegirici Antoniani...', Il Santo, 14 (1974), 63-120]; Hamburg S. Petruskirche MS Petri 54 ff. 1r-63v; Prague, National Museum, XVI D 3 (cat. no. 3679)

Sermones de Sacerdotibus et Prelatis (6 sermons, often in the same MSS as the Sermones de Sanctis)

Sermones de Dominicalibus Evangeliis et Epistolis (110 sermons): Clm, 2673, 9609 & 23376 [?]

Quadragesimale [46 sermons for every day during Lent]: Uppsala, UB C. 665 (ca. 1400) ff. 46v-47v; Clm, 7789 ff. 1r-48r; Clm, 8961 ff. 1r-83v; Clm, 5197 ff. 1r-47ra; Clm, 26784 ff. 70ra-157va; Clm, 7695 ff. 172v-173r; Clm, 7796 ff. 75r-123r; Vienna, Schattenbibliothek 156; Stuttgart Württemb. Landesbibl. HB I 162 ff. 163ra-213ra (15th cent.) & HB I 228 ff. 110ra-175rb; Würzburg Zisterzienserabtei Ebrach M.p.th.q 44 ff. 1r-57r (14th cent.)[or is this the work of Thomas Ebendorfer?]; Bamberg, Theol. 29 [?] [see for the ascriptions of these quadragesimalia Franz, Drei deutsche Minoritenprediger (Freiburg, 1907), 18-46.]

Sermo in Exaltatione Sancte Crucis: Solothurn, Zentralbibl. S. 209 f. 26r [s. XV]

Sermones de Tempore (c. 256 sermons): Augsburg, Univ. Libr. Cod. II.1.2° 27 (an. 1423) ff. 157-239 [de T, de S et de Occasionibus]; Uppsala Uppsala, C 665 ff. 157va-239 (ca. 1400) ff. 157-239 [de T, de S et de Occasionibus]; Siena, Bibl. Comm. G.IX.19; Copenhagen, Bibl. Thott. 63; Assisi, Comm. 464; Clm 2946; Lambach 190; Subiaco Bened. 161; Graz, Univ. Bibl. 419; Vat. Borges. 180; Stuttgart Württemb. Landesbibl. HB I 73 & HB I 228 (14th cent.) ff. 1-20;MS Troyes 1868, ff. 1-15v; Vienna, Österr. Nationalbibl. 1373 (in this ms together with works of Lothar dei Segni, Bartholomaeus de Bononia, Nicholas de Gorram and Ranulphus de Homblonario). There seems to exist a relationship between the sermons of Conrad and those of Gilbert of T. and John of La Rochelle; Prague, National Museum, XVI D 3 (cat. no. 3679). Cf. also Schneyer, Rep. I, 765-777.

Speculum Beatae Mariae Virginis: In all ca. 250 MSS, a.o. Münster i. Westf. Univ. Bibl. 252 ff. 214va-238va; Augsburg, Univ. Libr. Cod. II.1.2° 53 (an. 1443) ff. 201ra-243va [Prologus]; Hamburg, S. Petruskirche MS Petri 36 ff. 208r-232v (15th cent.) & 40 ff. 203r-223v (15th cent.) & 48 ff. 198v-238r & 54 ff. 1r-63v; Hamburg S. Petruskirche MS Jacobi 14 ff. 88v-110v; Lüneburg, Ratsbücherei 2° 84 ff. 3ra-7rb; Stuttgart Württemb. Landesbibl. HB I 22 ff. 109ra-157rb (15th cent.) & HB I 167 ff. 111ra-157ra (15th cent.); Frankfurt a.M. Dominikanerkloster 35 ff. 132v-165v (ca. 1470); Colmar Bibl. Publ. 250 ff. 1-33v (15th cent.); Univ. of London 269 ff. 36-71v (15th cent.); >>>In all more than 247 manuscripts [For the (German) translations of the Speculum Beatae Mariae Virginis , see K. Ruh, Bonaventura Deutsch, 186-191, 279ff.; H.-W. Haeller, Studien sur Ludwich Moser, Karthäuser-Monch in Basel (Freiburg, 1967).

Versus Holtnickeri: introductory verses to his sermon collections, replete with a short introduction for his readers and a dedication to Saint Francis. These verses can be found in several of his sermon manuscripts. For an edition, see below.

Spurious: In I-IV Sent. (Ascription probably not correct, as Conrad in all probability would have followed a lectorate course and never commented on the Sentences in the course of a theology degree program. Maybe be wrote a Sentences commentary, while teaching in the Saxony province?); Biblical commentaries; Commentary on the Pater Noster.

editions

Speculum Beatae Virginis, ed. L. Schmitz (Quaraccchi, 1904) The work for a long time was ascribed to Bonaventure; Speculum seu Salutatio B. Mariae Virginis ac Sermones Mariani, ed. P. de Alcantara Martinez, Bibliotheca Franciscana Ascetica Medii Aevi, 11 (Rome, 1975). [This impressive new edition, which also contains a lengthy and profound introduction on pp. 5-133, mentions no less than 247 manuscripts and 20-odd old editions in Latin alone] See also: Corrado di Sassonia, Commento all’Ave Maria, trad. Felice Accrocca, Edizioni PIEMME (Casale Monferrato, 1998). The work, which is, in fact, a very erudite Ave Maria commentary and shows a good command of the theological tradition (esp. the works of Bernard of Clairvaux ), presents a lengthy mariology in the form of an Ave Maria explanation.

Sermones: (Pseudo-) Bonaventura, Sermones de Tempore et de Sanctis (Paris: Jodocus Badius Ascensius, 1521/Brescia, 1596/97)

Sermo Francisci Patris Nostri (Troyes BM 1494 f. 266b), in: Francesco d'Assisi nella Storia, I: Secoli XIII-XV, Atti del primo convegno di studi per l'VIII centenario della nascità di S. francesco (1182-1982), ed. S. Gieben (Rome, 1983), 41-43

Sermo Francisci Confessoris (Troyes BM 1494 f. 276), in: Francesco d'Assisi nella Storia, I: Secoli XIII-XV, Atti del primo convegno di studi per l'VIII centenario della nascità di S. francesco (1182-1982), ed. S. Gieben (Rome, 1983), 43-44.

Sermones Mariani (selected sermons on Mary derived from Conrad’s various sermon collections), edited in: Speculum seu Salutatio B.Mariae Virginis ac Sermones Mariani, ed. P. de Alcantara Martinez, Bibliotheca Franciscana Ascetica Medii Aevi, 11 (Rome, 1975), 504-573.

Sermones de Sancta Clara, edited in Aleksander Horowski, ‘Chiara d’Assisi in alcuni sermoni medievali’, Collectanea Franciscana 81:3-4 (2011), 645-703. This article provides editions of sermons on Clare of Assisi, including three by Conradus Holtnicker de Saxonia on the basis of MSS Assisi, S. Convento, Fondo Antico Comunale 464 ff. 210v-214r; Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Clm 2946 ff. 167vb-169rb; Padua, Biblioteca Antoniana 472 ff. 48rb-50vb).

Versus Holtnickeri (short introductory poems found in some of his sermon mss. The poems introduce the sermons and dedicate them to Francis of Assisi. Edited in: Speculum seu Salutatio B.Mariae Virginis ac Sermones Mariani, ed. P. de Alcantara Martinez, Bibliotheca Franciscana Ascetica Medii Aevi, 11 (Rome, 1975), 18f., 60-62.

>> for more info on his works (mss and editions) see also the bibliographical notes of P. de Alcantara Martinez in his edition of the Speculum B.V.

literature

Chronica Fratris Jordani, ed. H. Boehmer (Paris, 1908), 1-62, 63-67, 76-80; Glassberger, Chronica, AF II (1885), 70, 76, 83, 93; A. Franz, Drei deutsche Minoritenprediger aus dem 13. Und 14. Jahrhundert (Freiburg, 1907), 9-46; L. Lemmens, Jahrbuch der sächsischen Franziskaner-Provinz vom Heiligen Kreuz 1 (1907), 142-144; L. Lemmens, Jahrbuch der sächsischen Franziskaner-Provinz vom Heiligen Kreuz 2 (1909), 23-25; P. Lehmann, Braunschweigisches Magazin 3 (1909), 29-31; S. Girotto, Corrado di Sassona, predicatore e mariologo del secolo xiii, Biblioteca di Studi Francescani, 3 (Firenze, 1952); S.A. St. Anthonis, in: Collectanea Franciscana 26 (1956), 210-212; W. Williams-Krapp, `Das Gesamtwerk des sog. `Schwarzwälder Predigers', ZfdA, 107 (1978), 50-80; DThCath. XIV, 133-1235; Sophronius Clasen, 'Konrad (Holtnicker, Holzinger und ähnliches) von Sachsen, Franziskaner, Theologe, aszetischmystischer Schriftsteller und Prediger, * Braunschweig, † 30.5.1279 Bologna', Neue Deutsche Biographie XII (1979), 549; Dieter Berg, Franziskanisches Leben, 111-145; Gerhard Stamm, `Conrad von Sachsen', in: Die Deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters. Verfasserslexikon V2 (Berlin-New York, 1985), 247-251; Dieter Berg, 'Konrad von Sachsen OFM (Konrad Holtnicker) (+1279)', Lexikon des Mittelalters V (1991), 1364-1365; David L. D’Avray, ‘Katharine of Alexandria and mass communication in Germany: woman as intellectual’, in: Modern Questions about Medieval Sermons: Essays on Marriage, Death, History and Sanctity, ed. Nicole Bériou & David L. D’Avray, Biblioteca di Medioevo Latino, 11 (Spoleto: Centro Italiano di Studi sull’Alto Medioevo, 1994), 401-408; Emanuela Prinzivalli, ‘Il ‘Commento all’Ave Maria’ di Corrado di Sassonia’, Ricerche Teologiche 10 (1999), 169-178; Stephen Mossman, ‘Preaching on St. Francis in Medieval Germany’, in: Franciscans and Preaching. Every Miracle from the Beginning of the World Came about through Words, ed. Timothy Johnson, The Medieval Franciscans, 7 (Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2012), 231-272 (esp. 235-243); Johannes Schlageter, ‘Franziskanische theologie des Mittelalters in der Saxonia’, in: Geschichte der Sächsischen Franziskanerprovinz, 1: Von den Anfängen bis zur Reformation, ed. Volker Honemann (Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2015), 427-435; Volker Honemann, ‘Das mittelalterliche Schrifttum der Franziskaner der Sächsischen Ordensprovinz unter besonderer Berücksichtigung deutschsprachiger Zeugnisse’, in: Geschichte der Sächsischen Franziskanerprovinz, 1: Von den Anfängen bis zur Reformation, ed. Volker Honemann (Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2015), 686-688.

 

 

 

 

 

Conrad Fünfbrunner (Cünratt Fünffbrunner, d. 1501)

German friar, member of the Nürnberg Franciscan convent. Known for a consolatory letter to a widow (Barbara), written (before 1457) on the occasion of the death of her husband. With recourse to biblical examples and similes, Conrad develops the theme of virtuous christian widowhood.

manuscripts

Trostbrief an die Witwe Barbara [geschriben nach der metten mit grossem eylen (…)Bruder Cünratt Fünffbrunner parfusser orden]: MS Nürnberg StB Cent VII 20 ff. 211v-215r [manuscript written between 1444 and 1457 in the St. Catherine convent of Nürnberg]

editions

Trostbrief an die Witwe Barbara, ed. K. Ruh, in: Kurt Ruh, Dagmar Ladisch-Grube & Josef Brecht, Franziskanisches Schrifttum. Band II: Texte (Munich, 1985), 248-250. [‘[248] (…) Auch, liebe fraw Barbara, das ir euch sölt nun schicken zu einem wittwen leben als lang, piß es der ewig got anders macht mit euch, und nempt ein cleine kurcze vermanung von mir auff, die ich euch hie beschreibe. Santt Paulus spricht, das vier dingk zu gehören einer wittwen: Das erst ist andechtig gepett, wann sie söllen haben sunderliche lieb zu ernstlichem gepet. Das ander ist, sie söllen nymer müßig sein, wann sant Paulus strafft alle wittwen, die in müßigkeit leben. Das dritt ist, sie söllen wenig wortt haben, und all ir wortt söllen güttig und senfftmüttig sein. Das vierd ist, [249] das sie söllen eynigkeit lieb haben und söllen nit vil hin noch her lauffen, als sant Paulus spricht. Wann ein wittwe sol sein als ein gürttel tewblein: so dem sein gemahel stirbt, so liebt es dar nach sein eynigkeit und fleugt nit hin noch her. Darumb lobet es die geschrifft Judith umb dise vier ding, wann wir lesen von ir, das sie junck und schön was vor allen frawen und allein in irem hauß ein heymliche kamer het, da sie innen wonet, mit iren junckfrawen beschlossen, und kam nymer her für denn wenn sie in den tempel wolt gen, und trug ein herein hemd an dem leib und vastet alle tag an den sabath und die höhcziglichen tag und vertreib ir zeit in heiliger übung und andechtigem leben, und durch diße heilige wittwe würcket got grosse dingk und wunder. (…) [250] Doch solt ir auch wissen, das mancherley wittwen sein: Zu dem ersten sein ettlich wittwe, die leben nach lust und muttwillen, und die sein tod wittwen (…) Zu dem anderen sein ettlich wittwen, die ir hauß außrichten und ir kinde zyehen in götlicher forcht, und sölche wittwen lobt sant Paulus sunderlich. Zu dem dritten so sein ettlich wittwen, die tag und nacht got dynnen und sein als santt Anna, die ein heilige wittwe was, von der santt Lucas schreibt, das sie stettiglich in dem tempel was und mit vasten und petten got dynnet tag und nacht. Das ir auch ein solche wittwe werdett, das helff euch der almechtig, ewig, parmhertzig got und wöl euch trösten mit seinem ewigen trost, der er selber ist.’]

literature

AF VI, 264; K. Ruh, ‘Fünfbrunner, Konrad’, Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters. Verfasserlexikon II2 (1980), 1013.

 

 

 

 

 

Cornelius Birag (fl. seventeenth cent.)

Scotist theologian.

editions

Commentaria et quaestiones in duos Aristotelis libros de ortu et interitu, in via Doctoris Subtilissimi Scoti (Ticini, 1621).

 

 

 

 

 

Cornelius de Urbino (Cornelio d’Urbino/Cornelio Castellucci, 1524-1603)

OFMCap. Spiritual author…

editions

Jacula Divini Amoris (Venice, 1593)/Dardi del divin Amore (Venice, 1593/Urbino, 1598 [revised edition])

Dardi del divin'amore. Del R. P. Fra Cornelio Castellucci Capuccino d'Urbino. Divisi in cinque parti principali (...) Opera spirituale (...) ornata di due tavole copiosissime (Venice: Bortolamio Carampello, 1593). Accessible via Google Books.

literature

DSpir II, 2336-2337 

 

 

 

 

Cornelius Donthers (Cornelis Donthers, before 1528-1553)

OFM. Confessor of the Grey Sisters of Nijvel for 26 years (from 1528 onwards), and he was guardian of the Nijvel friary when he died on September 13, 1554 [death date mentioned in the necrology of the Grey Sisters of Nijvel and in the necrology of the Friars Minor of Nijvel. The necrology of the Grey sisters also mentions the number of years Cornelis had functioned as their confessor: ‘Frère Cornille Donthers, après avoir confessé les Religieuses de ce couvent par l'espace de 26 ans, mourut le 13 septembre 1554‘]. He was buried in the choir of the church of the Friars Minor (his remains wree later transferred to the convent cemetery). He had a good reputation as a preacher and produced a devotional work on the blood sacrifice of Christ, which was published several times in different editions after his death. The first edition apparently appeared in 1570, thanks to the editorial labor of the Antwerp canon Philips of Almaras. No copy of this version seems to have survived. It was re-issued in 1589 by the Antwerp canon Michiel Brueghel, who like his predecessor provided additions and corrections. As De Troeyer (1969), 244 & 246 has indicated in significant detail: it is difficult to distinguish the work of Donthers from the editorial interventions of Almaras and Brueghel. In 1516 a French edition was issued in Liège (Luik).

editions

Devote oeffeninghen ende Contemplatie op die seven principale bloetstortinghen ons Heeren Iesu Christi, ghemaeckt byden Eer. Pater, B. Cornelis Donthers, Gardiaen was tot Nivele. Vermeerdert met diversche schoone en devote Ghebeden op die Passie ons Heeren Iesu Christi, deur H. Philips van Almaras. Hier sijn noch toegedaen schoone Litanien van het lijden ende Passie ons Heeren, vanden naem Ihesus ende van Maria de Moeder Gods. Van nieus ghecorrigeert deur H. Michiel Brueghel (Antwerp: Hendrik Wouters, 1589/Antwerp: Joachim Trognesius, 1596/Antwerp: Ces. Joachim Trognesius, 1629). As said above, the 1570 edition issued by Almaras, who is also mentioned in the title of the 1589 edition, probably has not survived.

Manuel des prières catholiques auquel sont contenues les contemplations tres devotes du R.P. Cornille Donthers (Liege: Guillaume Hovius, 1615). There possibly also exists an older French edition, issued in 1606, as is indicated in Petrus de Alva y Astorga, Militia Immaculata (Louvain, 1663), 309.

literature

Dirks, Histoire littéraire (1885), 78-79; Sbaralea, Supplementum (ed. 1936) III; Schmitz, Het aandeel (1936), 111; H. Lippens (ed.), ‘Nécrologie des Frères Mineurs de Nivelles‘, Neerlandia Franciscana 3 (1920), 61-114, 176-202, 261-282; J. Goyens (ed.), ‘Nécrologie des bienfaiteurs des Soeurs Grises de Nivelles‘, La France Franciscaine (1935), 459-461; Stefanus G. Axters, Geschiedenis van de Vroomheid III, 296; B. De Troeyer, Bio-Bibliographica Franciscana Neerlandica saec. XVI, I: Pars biographica (Nieuwkoop: B. De Graaf, 1969), 244-247.

 

 

 

 

Cornelius Mussus (Cornelio Musso, 1511-1574)

OFMConv. Theologian and one of the most renowned preachers of his time (he held for a considerable period a fixed pulpit in San Lorenzo in Damaso (Rome). He even received an eulogy by the Paduan Humanist Bernardino Tomitano: Discorso sopra l’eloquentia et l’artificio delle prediche, e del predicare di Monsignor Cornelio Musso (Venice, 1554). Born in Piacenza, he studied at Padua at the Convento del Santo and also took courses in the Paduan faculties of arts and theology. After completing his educational trajectory, Musso was Regens in Padua, Pavia and Bologna. From 1538 onwards, he was in the service of cardinal Farnese, and in 1541, he was appointed to the episcopal see of Bertinoro. Three years later, in 1544, he became Bishop of Bitonto. Musso gave the opening sermon at the Council of Trent and was very active in the Council's first sessions (a.o. member of the group who presented the first draft of the Iustification decree and the decree on preaching).

editions

Synodus Bituntina Rmi Patris F. Cornelii Mussi (...) totam fere ecclesiasticam disciplinam (...) complectens (...) (Venice: Apud Jolitos, 1579).

De Divina Historia Libri III (Venice: Apud Juntas, 1585 & 1587). Accessible via Google Books.

Prediche... fatte in diversi tempi e in diversi luoghi, nelle quali si contengono molti santi evangelici precetti..., 5 Vols. (Venice: Gabriel Giolito, 1556 [vol. 1], 1568-1571 [vols. 2-3], 1580 [vol. 4], and 1586 [vol. 5]). Several volumes of this multi-volume collection, as well as later editions are now accessible via Google Books.

Delle Prediche quaresimali del R.mo Mons.or Cornelio Musso Vescovo di Bitonto, sopra l'epistole & Evangeli corrente per i giorni di Quaresima. E sopra il Cantico della Vergine per li Sabati (...) (Venice, 1586/Venice: Giunti, 1588/Venice: Giunti, 1596 (2 Vols.)). At least the 1588 and the 1596 editions are accessible via Google Books.

Predica del Reverendo Monsi. Cornelio Vescovo di Bitonto, fatta in Trento il giorno di San Donato l'anno MDXLV per l'allegrezze, che si fecero venuta la nuova, ch'era nato il primogenito del Principe di Spagna figliuolo di Carlo Quinto Imperatore, nella quale si tratta delle Gratie e delli doni d'Iddio, e della dignità dell'Huomo (Venice: Gabriel Giolito de Ferrari e Fratelli, 1553). [see discussion of this text in the 2007 study of Gregorio Piaia mentioned below]

Predica del santo Purgatorio del reuerendiss. mons. Cornelio Musso Vescovi di Bitonto. Fatta nella sua Chiesa Cathedrale, il giorno de' Morti (Bologna: Giovanni Rossi, 1578). Accessible via Google Books.

In B. Pauli apostoli Epistolam ad Romanos absolutissima commentaria (...) (Venice: Giunti, 1588). This edition is accessible via Google Books.

Prediche sopra il Simbolo degli Apostoli, le due Dilettioni di Dio e del Prossimo, Il Sacro Decalogo & la Passione di nostro Signor Giesu Christo, descritta da S. Giovanni Evangelista (...) Predicate in Roma la Quaresima l'Anno MDXLII nella Chiesa di S. Lorenzo in Damaso, sotto il Ponteficato di Paolo Terzo (Venice: Giunti, 1590/Venice: Giunti, 1601). In any case the 1601 edition is now accessible via Google Books.

Conciones evangeliorum de dominicis aliquot et festis solennioribus, singulari pietate et omnis generis eruditione refertae, atque à multus hactenus desideratae (...), 2 Vols. (Cologne: Geruinus Calenius & Haeredes Ioannis Quentelii, 1594/Cologne: Arnold Quentelius, 1603). The 1603 edition is now accessible via Google Books.

Sermons de tres-reverend P. et tres-docte Cornelio Musso evesque de Bitonto. Sur les épistres et évangiles de chacun jour de caresme: et sur le Cantique de la Vierge Marie pour chacun Samedy avec la vie de l'Auteur et un Sommaire des Sermons, avec une table des choses plus notables. Traduits en François & dediez au Roy par Reverend Pere Estienne Allemandi de Saluzze de l'ordre de S. François Conventuel, Aumosnier & Predicateur ordinaire de sa Majesté 2 Vols. (Paris: Guillaume Chaudiere, 1597). In any case the first volume is accessible via Google Books.

Les sermons tres doctes de R. P. Cornelio Musso, évesque de Bitonto, sur le Decalogue, servans d'une entiere et parfaicte Instruction Chrestienne: Preschez par l'Autheur, devant seu nostre S. P. le Pape Paul III, Traduicts & dediez a Monsieur D'Incarville par Gabriel Chappuys, Secretaire Interprete du Roy (Paris; Guillaume de la Nove, 1598). Accessible via Google Books.

Vita di Maria Vergine madre di Christo descritta da Monsignor Cornelio Musso Vescovi di Bitonto. Ripiena di molte belle sante considerationi, e meditationi, Nella quale si dichiarano alcune cose importanti della Sacra Scrittura. Tradotta nella nostra lingua Italiana, dal Signor Giacomo Mauro (Naples: Giovanni Domenico Roncagliolo, 1613). This edition is accessible via Google Books.

Chrysostomi Italorum, id est Rmi P.F. Cornelii Mussi Franciscani, Episcopi Bitontini conciones aliquot Romae habitae, in Canticum Deiparae Virginis Magnificat. Opera F. Philippi Bosqvieri Caesarimontani, Franciscani, prov. Flandriae ex Italicis Latinae factae (Cologne: Johannes Crithius, 1618). Accessible via Google Books.

Sermones, ed. Giuseppe Musso>>

literature

H. Jedin, ‘Der Franziskaner Cornelius Musso. Sein Lebensgang und seine kirchliche Wirksamkeit’, Römische Quartalschrift 41 (1933), 207-275; G. Cantini, ‘Cornelio Musso, O.F.M.Conv., predicatore, scrittore e teologo al Concilio di Trento’, Micellanea Francescana 41 (1941), 146-174, 424-463; R.J. Bartman, ‘Cornelio Musso, Tridentine Theologian and Orator’, Franciscan Studies 5 (1945), 247-276; G. Odoardi, ‘Fra Cornelio Musso, O.F.M. Conv., padre, oratore e teologo al Concilio di Trento’, Miscellanea Franciscana 48 (1948), 223-242, 450-478 & 49 (1949), 36-71; A. Mobilia, Cornelio Musso e la prima forma del decreto sulla giustificazione (Napoli, 1960); Angelico Poppi, ‘La spiegazione del ‘Magnificat’ di Cornelio Musso (1540)’, in: Problemi e figure della scuola scotista del Santo, ed. Benjamino Costa e Samuele Doimi (Padua, 1966), 415-489; Angelico Poppi, ‘II Commento della lettera di S. Paolo ai Romani di Cornelio Musso,’ Il Santo 6 (1966), 225-260; V. Robles, ‘Bitonto durante l’episcopato di Cornelio Musso (1544-1574)’, in: Cultura e società a Bitonto nel sec. XVII (Bitonto, 1980), 11-28; M. Milani, ‘Una lettera di Alvise Cornaro a Cornelio Musso’, Il Santo 21 (1981), 605-610; S. Milillo, ‘Il testamento di Cornelio Musso vescovo di Bitonto (1544-1574)’, Studi Bitontini 44 (1986), 37-57; Gabriela de Rosa, `Il Francescano Cornelio Musso dal Concilio di Trento al Dioceso di Bitonto', Rivista di storia della chiesa in Italia, 40 (1986), 55-91 (reworked in Gabriele De Rosa, ‘Il francescano Cornelio Musso dal concilio di Trento alla diocesi di Bitonto’, in: Idem, Tempo religioso e tempo storico. Saggi e note di storia sociale e religiosa dal Medioevo all’età contemporanea, Storia e Letteratura, 1170 (Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 20022), 395-442; Gabriele De Rosa, ‘Il vescovo Cornelio Musso (1511-1574) e le traduzioni in francese delle sue opere’, in: Echanges religieux entre France et l’Italie/Relazioni e affinità religiose tra Francia e Italia dal Medioevo all’epoca moderna, ed. M. Maccarone and A. Vauchez (Genève, 1987), 299-233; John O’Malley, ‘Form, Content, and Influence of Works about Preaching before Trent: The Franciscan Contribution’, in: I frati minori tra ‘400 e ‘500, Atti del XII Convegno Internazionale Assisi, 18-19-20 ottobre 1984 (Assisi, 1986), 46-47; Antonio Poppi, 'Del 'filosofare nella scuola di Christo", in: Idem, La filosofia nello Studio francescano del Santo a Padova (Padua, 1989), 127-141 [on the philosophical positions of Musso, who can in part be seen as a pupil of Zimara but had more platonical tendencies]; LThK, 3rd ed. VII, 555; Corrie E. Norman, Humanist taste and Franciscan values: Cornelio Musso and Catholic preaching in Sixteenth-Century Italy, Renaissance and Baroque Studies and Texts, 24 (New York: Peter Lang, 1998); V. Robles, ‘Cornelio Musso e Girolamo Seripando: due diverse esperienze di riforma nel viceregno di Napoli’, in: Geronimo Seripando e la Chiesa del suo tempo nel V centenario della sua nascita, ed. A. Cestaro (Rome, 1997), 401-419; Corrie E. Normann ‘The franciscan preaching tradition and its XVIth-cent. Legacy. The case of Cornelio Musso’, Catholic History Review 85:2 (1999), 208-232; G. Piaia, ‘«Civitas solis vocabitur una». A proposito di uno spunto antimarsiliano in Cornelio Musso’, in: Idem, Marsilio e dintorni. Contributi alla storia delle idee (Padova, 1999), 249-263; S. Milillo, ‘Preoccupazioni pastorali nel primo sinodo di Cornelio Musso (1549)’, in: Studi di storia sociale e religiosa, 81-102; Larissa Taylor, ‘Humanist Taste and Franciscan Values: Cornelio Musso and Catholic Preaching Sixteenth-Century Italy by Corrie E. Norman', The Catholic Historical Review 86:4 (2000), 680-681 (review); Christian Mouchel, Rome franciscaine. Essai sur l’histoire de l’éloquence dans l’Ordre des Frères Mineurs au XVIe siècle, Bibliothèque littéraire de la Renaissance Série 3 - Tome XLVIII (Paris, 2001), 245-326 & passim; Gabriele De Rosa, ‘Il francescano Cornelio Musso dal concilio di Trento alla diocesi di Bitonto’, in: Idem, Tempo religioso e tempo storico. Saggi e note di storia sociale e religiosa dal Medioevo all’età contemporanea, Storia e Letteratura, 1170 (Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 20022), 395-442; Montserrat Casas Nadal, ‘Las traduciones al castellano de los sermones de Fray Cornelio Musso, obispo de Bitonto’, in: Los Franciscanos Conventuales en España. Actas del II Congreso Internacional (..), ed. Gonzalo Fernández-Gallaro (Barcelona: Asociación Hispánica de Estudios Franciscanos, 2006), 431-448; Gregorio Piaia, ‘‘Ars praedicandi’’ e messaggi politici in un vescovo francescano del Cinquecento: Cornelio Musso’, in: I Francescani e la politica. Atti del Convegno internazionale di studio, Palermo 3-7 Dicembre 2002, ed. Alessandro Musco, 2 Vols. (Palermo: Officina di Studi Medievali, 2007) II, 803-816; M.T. Girardi, ‘Cornelio Musso predicatore e vescovo francescano dell’età conciliare’, Studia Borromaica 21 (2007), 307-324; M.T. Girardi, ‘“Un novello stile d’orazion sacra”. La predicazione di Cornelio musso (1511-1574)’, in: Poesia e retoriche sacre, ed. E. Ardissino and E. Selmi (Alessandria, 2007), 331-366; Patrizio Foresta, ‘Musso Cornelio’, in: Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani 77 (2012); L. Bertazzo, ‘Il francescano Cornelio Musso: padre conciliare a Trento, vescovo di Bitonto, predicatore’, in: Segni del Francescanesimo a Bitonto e in Puglia, ed. N. Pice and F. Moretti (Bari: Edipuglia, 2012), 205-222; V. Robles, ‘Il vescovo Cornelio Musso… dalle pagine del suo epistolario’, in: Segni del Francescanesimo a Bitonto e in Puglia, ed. N. Pice and F. Moretti (Bari: Edipuglia, 2012), 223-252; M.T. Girardi, L’arte compiuta del viver bene: l’oratoria sacra di Cornelio Musso (1511-1574) (Pisa: ETS, 2012).

With thanks to Pietro Delcorno.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conradus Nater (fl. late fifteenth century)

Vice guardian of the Lenzfried convent near Kempten. Translator of Bonaventure's Regula Novitiorum. On his various posts as guardian and vice-guardian in the convents of Munich (1486/1487/1489), Lenzfried (1490/92), Basel (1493), Oppenheim (1495/6), Nürnberg (1498/99), and Mainz (1501), as well as on his participation in the provincial chapter of 1484, see Analecta Franciscana VIII, 702, 749, 751, 752, 755, 765, 770.

manuscripts

Translation of the Regula Novitiorum: Kaufsbeuren, Franziskanerkloster Lit. 1 (Hauptstaatsarchiv München) ff. 19r-48r (after 1492); St. Gallen Stiftsbibl. Cod. 973, pp. 15-107 (1498).

editions

The earliest edition stemms from 1473 [Hain, 429]. For a partial modern edition [chapters II & XVI], see Ruh, Franziskanisches Schrifttum I, 130-138.

literature

Bavaria Franciscana Antiqua I, 389-426; K. Ruh, Bonaventure Deutsch, 251f; K. Ruh, VL, VI (Berlin-New York, 1986), 865-866.

 

 

 

 

Conrad Oesterreicher (fl. ca. 1500)

OFMObs. Active in the Munich convent and friend of Daniel Agricola. Conrad preached for an urban public. A series of his reworked Passion sermons were published under the title Venustissima Materia Passionis Christi Jesu (1502). In this work, the suffering and death of Christ is presented in the shape of a long legal process, in which many figures from the Old and New Testament appear. It is made clear that Christ has to be condemned to death because of natural law (charity demands the death of Christ in order to save mankind), the Old Law (truth demands his death), and the Law of grace (it is necessary that Christ dies to save man). Strong emphasis on the enormity of Christ’s suffering and his consolation of Mary. The book provides preachers with sketches and themes for sermons for Lent and Passion week.

editions

Venustissima Materia Passionis Christi Jesu a Quodam Fratre Minore de Observantia in Civitate Monacensi Superioris Bavarie Predicata, Vulgata et Solerter Perspicata (Memmingen: Albert Küne, 1502). Available via Google Books.

Passionis Domini et Redemptoris Nostri Jesu Christi, Filii Dei et Hominis, Materia Pulcherrima sub Forma Judiciarii Processus, ante Octaginta Annos Monaci in Superiori Bavaria Predicata et in Publicum Divulgata, Auctore F. Conrado Oesterreicher, Ordinis Minorum de Observantia et apud Franciscanos Monacenses Concionatore (Ingolstadt: Wolfgang Eder, 1581). Available via the digital collections of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek.

Ein ordentlicher gerichts Proceß, Wie Christus nach dem Natürlichen, geschriebnen und evangelischen Gesatz von wegen deß gantzen Menschlichen Geschlechts nach Art der Rechten verurteylt und verdammet worden, Neben viel heylsamen Betrachtungen deß Leydens und Sterbens JESU CHRISTI Erstlich Vor achtzig Jaren von einem fürtreflichen Prediger Franciscaner Ordens zu München, F. Conrad Oesterreicher, in Latein angestellt und außgegangen, Anjetzt (..) verteutscht Durch M. Georg Müller (Ingolstadt: Wolfgang Eder, c. 1581). This edition is now accessib;e via Google Books. A modern translation appeared as: Sehr anmutige Materie über das Leiden Christi, von Konrad Oesterreicher, Franziskanerprediger in Münich, ed. P. Minges (Regensburg, 1923).

literature

Landmann, ‘Zum Predigtwesen (…)’, Franziskanische Studien 14 (1927), 313-317.

 

 

 

 

 

Conrad Pellican (Konrad Pellikan/Kurscherer, 1478-1556)

OFMObs from Rufach. Studied in Heidelberg (1491), initially with the support (for 16 months in 1491-1492) of his mother's brother Jodocus Gallus, who changed Conrad's last name from Kurscherer to ‘Pellicanus‘. After returning to Rufach, Pellican taught for free in the Franciscan convent school at Rufach in exchange for the permission to borrow books from the library. Shortly afterwards, when he was 16 years old, he entered the Franciscans in the same friary. His order sent him for further (theological) studies to the Franciscan studium in Tübingen (1495). His teacher Paulus Scriptoris awakened his interest in philology and shaped Pellican’s critical attitude towards scholastic theology. Started to study Hebrew in 1499 and made contacts with Reuchlin. Became priest in 1501 and finished his Hebrew grammar. Active back in the friary of Rufach as a teacher of Hebrew, Greek, mathematics and cosmography. Around this time (1501?), he wrote (one of the?) first complete Hebrew-Latin grammar from a Christian perspective. In 1502 he became lector of theology in the Franciscan convent of Basel. Also on the road as secretary for the Franciscan provincial Kaspar Schatzgeyer. Guardian of the Basel convent in 1519. Pursued his humanist interests, at a time when Franciscan friars with intellectual inclinations were given considerable liberty to pursue their studies. He made the acquaintance with Erasmus and helped him with the edition of Jerome’s works as well as with the editions of other Church fathers in the Basel printing house of Froben. Pellican corresponded with Luther and became gradually more and more involved with the reform movement (with Oecolampadius and Zwingli). Initially, his order superiors were rather lenient. He was allowed to remain guardian of the convent of his order at Basel from 1519 until 1524, and even when he had to give up his post because of his Protestant leanings, he was allowed to remain in the monastery for another two years, professing theology in the university of Basel. Eventually, a breach with the order seemed inevitable, even though Pellican maintained for a long time that he remained true to the ideals of Francis. He was convinced by Zwingli to accept a position as professor of Greek and Hebrew in Protestant Zürich, and formally threw off his habit. Pellican married in 1526 with Anna Fries (who gave him a son and a daughter. His son Samuel would later become a distinguished Hebraist and Aristotle translator). After the death of Anna in 1536, Conrad Pellican remarried in 1537 with Elisabeth Kalb. His leanings towards the reformation led to a breach with Erasmus, even though the irenic Pellican tried to keep the friendship intact and always acknowledged his indebtedness to the Dutch humanist. Reconciliation with Erasmus took place shortly before the death of the latter. Pellican died himself in Zürich on 6 April 1556.

editions

Die hauschronik Konrad Pellikans von Rufach. Ein Lebensbild aus dem Reformationszeit, trans. Theodor Vulpinus (Strasbourg: J.H. Ed. Heitz, 1892). In fact a more or less autobiographical chronicle. See also: Das Chronikon des Konrad Pellikan, ed. Bernhard Riggenbach (Basel, 1877).

De Modo Legendi et Intelligendi Hebraeum (Strasbourg: Johann Schott, 1504)

Quadruplex Psalterium (Basel, 1516)/Quadruplex Psalterium Davidis (Strasbourg, 1527).

Explicatio libelli Ruth (Zurich, 1531).

Commentaria Bibliorum, 7 Vols. (Zürich: C. Froschauer, 1532-1539) [complete commentary on the Bible with much emphasis on philological issues, differences between Hebrew, Greek and Latin renderings of the biblical text, and with an eye on the historical constitution of the text and its contents.]

Index bibliorum (Zurich, 1537).

Ruth: Ein heylig Büchlin des alten Testament, mit einer schoenen kurtzen außlegung (Zurich, 1555).

A Latin translation of Bechji Ben Asher's commentary on the Torah.

A Latin translation of a work by Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer (Eliezer filius Hircani), issued as the Liber sententiarum Judiacarum (1546).

literature

Friedrich Bresch, Esquisse biographique sur Conrad Pellican (Strasbourg, 1870); Emil Silberstein, Conrad Pellicanus: ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Studiums der hebräischen Sprache in der ersten Hälfte des XVI. Jahrhunderts (Berlin: Buchdruckerei von Rosenthal, 1900); H. Meylan, ‘Erasme et Pellican’, in: Colloquium Erasmianum (Mons, 1968), 244-254; Christoph Zürcher, Konrad Pellikans Wirken in Zürich 1526-1556 (Zürich: Theologischer Verlag, 1975); Paul Nyhus, ‘Caspar Schatzgeyer and Conrad Pellikan: The Triumph of Dissension in the Early Sixteenth Century’, Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 61 (1970), 179-204; Francis Rapp, ‘Les Franciscains et la Réformation en Alsace: deux religieux humanistes dans la tourmente, Murner et Pellican’, Annales de l'Est (1985), 151-165; Francis Rapp, ‘Rhenanus et Pellikan, une passion commune, des destinées divergentes’, Amis de la bibliothèque humaniste de Sélestat 35 (1985), 211-220; Hans R. Guggisberg, ‘Conradus Pellicanus of Rouffach’, in: Contemporaries of Erasmus. A Biographical Register of the Renaissance and Reformation III (Toronto-Buffalo-London, 1987), 65-66; Erich Wenneker, ‘Pellikan, Konrad‘, in: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon VII (Herzberg, 1994), 180-183; Max Pauer, Die reformierte Stiftsbibliothek am Grossmünster Zürich im XVI. Jht. Rekonstruktion des Buchbestandes und seiner Herkunft, der Bücheraufstellung und des Bibliothekraumes. Mit Edition des Inventars von 1532/1551 von Conrad Pellikan (Wiesbaden, 1994); Christoph Zürcher, Christoph. ‘Konrad Pellikan’, in: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation, ed. Hans J. Hillerbrand (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996) III, 241–242; Geoffrey Dipple, Antifraternalism and Anticlericalism in the German Reformation (Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1996), 58, note 116; W. Röll, ‘Pellikan (Kürsner, Pellicanus), Konrad’, in: Deutscher Humanismus 1480-1520. Verfasserlexikon, ed. F.J. Worstbrock, 2 Vols. (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2008-2013) II.2, 421-434; G.G. Merlo, Nel nome di san Francesco: Storia dei frati minori e del francescanesimo sino agli inizi del XVI secolo (Padua: Editrici Francescane, 2003), 422-428; Christine Christ-von Wedel, ‘Erasmus und die Zürcher Reformatoren. Huldrich Zwingli, Leo Jud, Konrad Pellikan, Heinrich Bullinger und Theodor Bibliander’, in: Erasmus in Zürich: eine verschwiegene Autorität, ed. Christine Christ-von Wedel & Urs Bernhard Leu (Zürich, 2007), 77-166; W. Röll, ‘Pellikan (Kürsner, Pellicanus), Konrad’, in: Deutscher Humanismus 1480 – 1520. Verfasserlexikon, ed. F.J. Worstbrock, 2 Vols. (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2008-2013), II:2, 421-434; Pietro Delcorno, In the Mirror of the Prodigal Son: The Pastoral Uses of a Biblical Narrative (ca. 1200-1550), PhD Thesis Radboud University (Nijmegen: Bookbuilders, 2015), 469-472; Gabriele Jancke, 'Individuality', Relationships. Words about Onseself: Autobiographical Writing as a Resource (Fifteenth-Sixteenth Centuries) - Konrad Pellikan's Autobiography', in: Forms of Individuality and Literacy in the Medieval and Early Modern Periods, ed. Franz-Josef Arlinghaus (Turnhout: Brepols, 2015), 151-176.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conrad Spitzer (Conradus/Chunradus de Wienna, d. 1380)

Bavarian/Austrian friar. Member of the Holy Cross convent at Vienna. Between 1356 and 1365 for three consecutive terms provincial minister of the Austrian province, and later confesssor at the court of Duke Albrecht III an Duchess Beatrice of Nürnberg. Known for his interest in art and books. He died in 1380 (the Necrologium patrum minorum Conventualium ad S. Crucem Vindobonae, MGH Necrologia Germ. V (Berlin, 1913) states on p. 173: ‘A. d. 1380 ob. P. rev. fr. Chunradus de Wienna Spiczerii, quondam minister Austriae et confessor curie principum Austrie, et fratres tenentur facere anniv. suum, quia conventus multa bona ab ipso recepit, librariam, multos libros et solempnes, edificia multa, picturas solempnes et vitream novam in choro et plura alia.’ On p. 226 is added: ‘A.d. 1380 ob. rev. p. fr. Chunradus de Wienna, quondam minister Austriae et confessor curie domini ducis et sue consortis, dominae ducisse, sepultus in capella b. Antonii extra chorum in annucciacione virginis gloriose’). He wrote between 1365 and 1380 (probably during his stay at the Vienese court) a Büchlein von der geistlichen Gemahelschaft, consisting of 6530 verses, which has survived in one early fifteenth-century manuscript copy, made by the reformed Benedictines of the Vienna Schottenstift. Between 1418 and 1430, a prose reworking was made by a benedictine monk from Melk. This prose version, which subdues some of the more Franciscan theological elements inherent in the original (but also makes clear that i.) more copies of the versified version circulated before and in the early fifteenth century and ii.) the surviving manuscript copy of the versified original is not fully complete), has survived in two versions in several other manuscripts (Melk, Stiftsbibliothek 235 ff. 189va-206vb & 1730 ff. 1r-87vb; Munich cgm 775 ff. 172r-264v & 5942 ff. 273r-346v; Munich Universitätsbibliothek 4° cod. ms 483 ff. 256r-369v; Munich Universitätsbibliothek 4° cod. ms 485 ff. 1r-87r; Klosterneuburg 1153 ff. 80r-208r). This prose version later was reworked and printed several times (cf. VL² V, 114; Schülke, Konrads Büchlein von der geistlichen Gemahelschaft, 3-4; Hain, 4036-39; Gesamtkatalog der Wiegendrücke, 5666-5669).

manuscript

Büchlein von der geistlichen Gemahelschaft: MS Vienna Schottenstift 295 ff. 1r-67v (Bavarian copy dating from the first quarter of the 15th cent.). This manuscript also contains a full German translation of the Jubilus rythmicus de nomine Jesu (inc on f. 68r: Der süzz gedanch an Jhesum christ Ein ware freund dez herzen ist/Auer vor aller suessichait ist suezz sein gegenwurtichait; expl on f. 70r: Mein hertz ist nach jm geganen wann er es hat mit lieb umuangen Mit gir und auch mit andacht lob wir Jhesum in suezzer acht daz er uns in seinem reich verleich zeleben ewichleich AMEN. This work has been edited several time, a.o. in W. Bremme, Der Hymnus Jesu dulcis memoria in seinen lateinischen Handschriften und Nachahmungen, sowie deutschen Übersetzungen (Mainz, 1899), 115-120, 366.), and Marquard von Lindau’s Das Puch von dem zehen Gepoten Gots (ff. 74r-189r). The manuscripts containing the prose version contain comparable (Franciscan and non-Franciscan) catechistic texts and specimen of ‘Erbauungsliteratur’ (a full description of these manuscripts and an analysis of their relationship is given in the edition of Schülke, p. 44 ff.).

editions

Büchlein von der geistlichen Gemahelschaft, edited in: U. Schülke, Konrads Büchlein von der geistlichen Gemahelschaft. Untersuchungen und Text, MTU 31 (Munich, 1970), 87-256. The work artfully elaborates the theme of the marriage of the soul with God after death (reworking the well-established theological theme of the spirituale coniugium inter Deum et iustam animam per animi charitatem), as a completion of the spiritual union that had started with baptism. Or, in the words of the editor (p. 35 introd.): ‘Im Büchlein von der geistlichen Gemahelschaft herrscht die Vorstellung, daß beim Tod des Gläubigen die Hochzeit stattfindet (…) und zwar ist der Tod der Zeitpunkt der Heimholung (…), der als Hochzeitsfest im Jenseits gefeiert wird (…).’ Heavy emphasis on the preparation of the human soul (before death) for this spiritual marriage; in which the soul receives help and advice by a range of maidens (representing the virtues) and is called upon to accept and apply the religious teachings of Sapientia. These teachings make very clear that every indivudual has a free choice to live with or without the grace of God. The manuscript title of the work (in MS Vienna Schottenstift 295 f 1r) is: ‘Daz puechel ist von geischeicher gemähelschaft die czwischen got ist und der sel und redet ingeleichnuzz von tugenten als von junchfrawen.’ The (pretty sophisticated!) work probably was in the first instance intended to be read aloud before a (courtly) lay public at the Habsburg court of Vienna, and apparently intended to provide the ‘cristenlewt’ and the ‘christensel’ with a moral guide for living a proper Christian life. For a further analysis (courtly presentation, use of concepts developed by Augustine, Bernard, Hugh of St. Victor, Honorius Augustodunensis (esp. his Elucidarium), Alexander of Hales, Albertus Magnus, and Bonaventure (esp. his Soliloquium) etc.) see in particular the various works of Schülke (a.o. 26ff of the introduction to the edition).

literature

A. Klecker, ‘Das Büchlein von der geistlichen Gemahelschaft in Cod. 295 des Wiener Schottenstifts’, in: Festschrift D. Kralik (Horn, 1954), 193-203; U. Schülke, Konrad Spitzers Büchlein von der geistlichen Gemahelschaft. Untersuchung und Text, MTU 31 (Munich, 1970). Ulrich Schülke, ‘Konrad (Spitzer)’, Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters. VL V2, 111-114; Annette Volfing, ‘Allegorie und Didaxe in Konrads 'Büchlein von der geistlichen Gemahelschaft'’, in: Dichtung und Didaxe: Lehrhaftes Sprechen in der deutschen Literatur des Mittelalters, ed. Henrike Lähnemann & Sandra Linden (Berlin etc.: Walter de Gruyter, 2009), 367-382

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conradus Steckel

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literature

A. Schnyder, Die deutsche Lit. des MA, Verfasserlxikon, IX, 241-3

 

 

 

 

 

Conradus Ströber (d. 1443)

Lector, guardian, custos of Bavaria, and suffragan bishop of Regensburg. To him is ascribed a Pentecost sermon, held before the provincial chapter of Strasbourg in 1436 (ed. Ruh, Franziskanisches Schrifttum II, 117f). This sermon is also ascribed to a frater Laurentius (solemnis praedicator and custos Pavariae et Rheni, d. 1442. Cf. Landmann (1928), 101f., 104f, Anm. 34). The same manuscript that contains this Pentecost sermon also contains a treatise/sermon on the twelve signs of the working of the Holy Spirit, the author of which according to the text is a ‘wackalierer (…) genant der striber.’ Ruh identifies this ‘Striber’ with Conrad Ströber (Ruh, Franziskanisches Schrifttum II, 117, 126). In MS Berlin mgq f. 42v & f. 266v, the ‘Striber’ is indicated as bachelor. Conrad Ströber is not known to have reached that degree. Yet the title bachelor does not necessarily imply that the ‘Striber’ actually had a bachelor degree. Furthermore, stylistic and material parallels between the various writings would support the identification of Ströber with the ‘Striber’.

manuscripts

Sermo in Pentecosten: MS Berlin mgq 206 ff. 215v-222v. [Based on the theme ‘Habebunt vitam eternum’ (Joh. 3, 16 & 5,24), the sermon deals with tugentsam, geistlich and vollekumen leben, and develops an exposition on virtues and the perfect life. Cf. Schiewer, 454.]

For the treatise on the twelve signs of the workings of the Holy Spirit, see the lemma ‘Striber’

editions

Sermo in Pentecosten, ed. K. Ruh, Franziskanisches Schrifttum II, 118-125.

literature

K. Eubel, Geschichte der oberdeutschen (Straßburger) Minoriten-Provinz (1886), 165; L. Pfleger, Zur Geschichte des Predigtwesens in Straßburg vor Geiler von Kaysersberg (Strasbourg, 1907), 22; F. Landmann, ‘Zum Predigtwesen des Straßburger Franziskanerprovinz in der letzten Zeit des Mittelalters’, Franziskanische Studien 15 (1928), 96-120; Kurt Ruh, Dagmar Ladisch-Grube & Josef Brecht, Franziskanisches Schrifttum Band II: Texte (Munich, 1985), 117f; Hans-Jochen Schiewer, ‘Ströber, Konrad OFM’, Die deutsche Lit. des MA,Verfasserlexikon², IX (1995), 453f.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Constantin de Barbanson (1582-1631)

OFMCap. Entered the order at Brussels. Provincial definitor and guardian of the Convent of Bonne. Important spiritual author. A lengthy entry is devoted to him in the Dictionnaire de spiritualité ascétique et mystique (see below). See also https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantin_de_Barbanson

editions

Les secrèts sentiers de l’amour divin. Esquels est cachee la vraye Sapience celeste et le Royaume de Dieu en nos Ames. Divisez en deux Parties (...) (Cologne: Jean Kincki, 1623/Paris: Sebastien Hure, 1649)/Les Secrets Sentiers de l'amour divin (Paris: Desclée, 1932). The 1623 and 1649 editions are now accessible via Google Books. An modern English translation of the work appeared as The Secret Paths of Divine Love (Justin McCann, 1928).

Amoris divini occultae semitae, in quibus vera coelestis sapientia & Regnum Dei quod intranos est, absconditum latet. In duas partes divisae (...) (Cologne: Sumptibus Bernardi Gualteri, 1623)/Verae Theologiae Mysticae Compendium sive Amoris divini occultae semitae, in quibus vera coelestis Sapientia & Regnum Dei quod intra nos est, absconditum latet. In duas partes divisae (...) (Amsterdam: Henricus Wetstein, 1698). Both editions are accessible via Google Books.

Anatomie de l'âme et des opérations divines en Icelle. Qui est une Addition au livre des Secrets Sentiers de l'amour Divin (...) (Liège: Leonard Streel le Jeune, 1635). Accessible via Google Books.

Die heimliche und verborgene Weg der Liebe Gottes, in welchen die wahre himmelische Weißheit, und Gottes Reich, so inwendig in uns ist: verborgen ligt (...) (1624).

Selections of his works have been included in La vie mystique chez les franciscains du dix-septième siècle. Tome II: Florilège de figures mystiques de la réforme capucine, ed. Dominique Tronc, Collection Sources mystiques (Mers-sur-Indre: Paroisse et Famille-Centre Saint-Jean-de-la-Croix, 2014).

literature

Sbaralea, Supplementum et castigatio ad scriptores trium ordinum S. Francisci (ed. 1806), 202; C. de Nant, 'Constantin de Barbanson',DSpir II (1953), 1634-1641; Hildebrand van Hooglede, ‘Constantinus van Barbançon’s Secrets Sentiers’, in: Idem, Miscellanea II, 813-814; Hildebrand van Hooglede, ‘Le P. Constantin de Barbençon’, in: Idem, Miscellanea IV, 1777-1785; Hildebrand van Hooglede, ‘Sur les Secrets Sentiers de l’Amour Divin de Constantin de Barbençon’, in: Idem Miscellanea IV, 1786-1787.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Constantin Bargellini (Constantius Bargelinus Bononiensis/Costanzo Bargellini/Costanzo Barzellini, d. 1585)

OFMConv. Took the habit at Bologna. Obtained a master degree in theology on march 7, 1566 at Bologna University and taught theology in the Franciscan studium for eight years. In August 1574, he was appointed bishop of Rieti by pope Gregory XIII. In 1584 he was transferred to the see of Foligno, and died there on 29 december 1585. One of his lectures, delivered at the general chapter of Venice (1546), still survives.

editions

De Deo et Conscientia Consulendis pro Electione (Venice, 1546).

literature

Sbaralea, Supplementum et castigatio ad scriptores trium ordinum S. Francisci, (ed. 1806), 201; Galeotti, Trattato degl’uomini illustri di Bologna (Ferrara, 1609), 29; C. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica I, 215, 301; É. Van Cauwenbergh, ‘Bargellini’, DHGE VI, 787.

 

 

 

 

Constantinus Boccafoci (Constanti(n)us Sarnanus/Constanzo Boccafoci/Torri/Gasparo Boccafuoco, 1531-1595)

OFMConv. Italian friar from Sarnano (Marches of Ancona). After reaching the magisterium theologiae, he taught at the universities of Perugia, Padua and Rome, resulting in several works, only one of which was printed during his lifetime (Summa). His good friend Felice Peretti was made Pope Sixtus V and made him cardinal of San Vitale (16 November 1586) and bishop of Vercelli (6 April 1587). Constanzo apparently never took up the latter position, which he officially resigned from in 1589. As a cardinal at Rome, he was appointed in various papal committees (such as the Congregatio de S. Officio, and other committees overseeing dioceses and religious orders), and also was asked to take part in the collaborative efforts to correct the Bible and to oversee the edition of the Opera Omnia of Bonaventura da Bagnoreggio. Constanzo died at Rome on 31 December 1595. He was buried in the Conventual Church at Sarnano, of which he had been a patron.

manuscripts/editions

Directorium in logicam, phylosophiam, atque theologiam, ad mentem scoti, doctoris subtilis (...) per F. Constantinin Sarnanum (...) (Venice, 1580).

Preface to Sancti Bonaventurae, (...) Opera omnia in tomos septem distributa (...), 7 Vols. (Rome: ex typographia Vaticana, 1588-1596) I, praefatio.

Conciliatio dilucida omnium controversiarum quae in doctrina duorum summorum theologorum S. Thomae et subtilis Joannis Scoti passim leguntur, addito non sine maxima accessione in universam theologiam praeclaro directorio, auctore (...) Constantio Sarnano (...) (Lyon: ex officina Juntarum, 1590).

Tractatus Philosophiae>>>>

Summa Theologiae (Rome, 1592)

>>>>

literature

Cardella, Memorie storiche dei cardinali (Rome, 1793) V, 255-256; B. Gams, Series Episcoporum (Regensburg, 1873), 826; C. Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi III, 57, 351; DBI>>>

 

 

 

 

Constantinus Letins (fl. ca. 1700)

OFMRec. Active in the Flemish St. Joseph province. Preacher in the Cathedral of Liège (Luik/Lüttich). He wrote preaching manuals.

editions

Theologica Concionatoria Docens et movens (...), 5 Vols. (Liège-Frankfurt am Main: Guillaume Broncart, 1711-1725/Cologne, 1726/Maastricht: Lambert Bertus, 1730). The first edition is accessible via the digital collections of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Munich, via the digital collections of the University Library of Freiburg im Breisgau, and in Part via Google Books. The Maastricht edition is partly accessible via Google Books.

Promptuarium, Seu, Apparatus Concionum: Opus In Duas Partes Distributum, Quarum Prima Conciones XCII in Decalogum, Altera Conciones XLIV amplissimas de poenitentia continet. Cui accedit I. Repertorium locupletussimum argumentorum pro universis sacrarum missionum concionatoriis exercitationibus, II. Pro tota quadragesimali periodo, III. Pro Evangeliis singulis anni Dominicis facili negotio explanandis (...), 2 Vols. (Naples: Piscopo, 1859 (2nd ed.)). The second edition is accessible via Google Books.

literature

Le journal des sçavans pour l'année MDCCXVIII (Paris: Pierre Witte, 1718), 404f.; Harry Caplan & Henry H. King, ‘Latin Tractates on Preaching: A Book-List’, The Harvard Theological Review 42:3 (Jul., 1949), 203; Biogr. Belg. XII, 32-33; DThCat IX, 458.

 

 

 

 

Costantinus Porta (Costanzo Porta, 1529-1601)

OFMConv. Born in Cremona, where he studied at the Porta San Luca friary In addition, he probably studied around 1550 music with Adrian Willaert, then chapel master of the San Marco in Venice. There Porta also met Claudio Merulo, with whom he worked also later in life and who became a close friend. By 1552, Porta had become chapel master at Osimo Cathedral. This was followed in 1565 by a short-term position at Padua and a longer engagement in Ravenna, to help establish a flourishing musical practicve at the cathedral. He became a renowned choir master, teacher and composer, and was repeatedly asked to accept prestigious assignments in various North-Italian towns, including Milan, Padua, Osimo, Ravenna and Loreto. His final years were spent in Padua, where he died. He was buried in the San Antonio Basilica. Porta is well-known for his motets and madrigals, masses, introits, and a huge number of vesper hymns.

editions

CONSTANTII PORTAE CREMONENSIS ... Motectorum nunc primum in lucem prodeuntium LIBER PRIMVS: QVINQVE VOCIBVS (Venice: Antonio Gardano, 1555).

CONSTANTII PORTAE CREMONENSIS MIN. CONVEN. Musica Sex candenda vocibus in nonnulla ex Sacris Litteris collecta verba. AD SANCTISS. D. N. SIXTVM V. PONT. MAX. ET OPT. LIBER TERTIVS (Venice: Angelo Gardano, 1585). Accessible via Google Books

Costanzo Porta, Opera omnia, nunc edita transcriptione Presb. Syri Cisilino, ed. Joannis M. Luisetto OFMConv, 12 Vols (Padua: Biblioteca Antoniana, 1964-1971). [o.a. Vol. I: Motecta quatuor vocum; Vol. II: Motecta quinque vocum, liber primus; Vol. III: Motecta quinque vocum, liber secundus; Vol. X: Missae tres ineditae by Costanzo Porta, Presb. Syri Cisilino, P. Joannis M. Luisetto]

For several performed madrigals and other songs, see http://www.classicalarchives.com/composer/25176.html

literature

Lilian Pibernik Pruett, The Motets of Costanzo Porta, a Style-critical Study (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1956); Lilian Pibernik Pruett, The Masses and Hymns of Costanzo Porta (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1960); Celebrazione del IV centenario della morte di P. Costanzo Porta OFMConv: (1529 - 1601); atti della Giornata di Studio su Costanzo Porta, Ravenna, 27 ottobre 2001, ed. Maria Nevilla Massaro (Padua: Centro Studi Antoniani, 2004); Friedrich W. Riedel, ‘Die Bedeutung der konventualen Minoriten für die musikalische Stilentwicklung in Europa’, in: Plaude turba paupercula. Franziskanischer Geist in Musik, Literatur und Kunst. Konferenzbericht Bratislava, 4.-6. Oktober 2004, ed. Ladislav Kacic (Bratislava: Jana Stanislava SAV, 2005), 51-69; Columba Sara Evelyn, Costanzo Porta (Fec Publishing, 2011); Barocco padano e musici francescani: L’apporto dei maestri conventuali. Atti del XVI Convegno internazionale sul barocco padano (secoli XVII-XVIII), Padova 1-3 luglio 2013, ed. Alberto Colzani, Andrea Luppi & Maurizio Padoan, Barocco Padano, 8/Centro Studi Antoniani, 55 (Padua: Associazione Centro Studi Antoniani, 2014). Review in Collectanea Franciscana 85:1-2 (2015), 352-354.

 

 

 

 

Constantinus Steingaden (1618-1675)

Franciscan Swiss composer. Studied with the Jesuits in Luzern from 1631 onwards. Joined the Franciscans in 1644 and worked in the Engelberg monastery, where he obtained a name for himself as organ master and chapel master. Moved to Constance (Konstanz), where he worked for the remainder of his life as chapel master in the monastery and in the local cathedral. He is predominantly known for two works issued in 1666, namely the Flores hyemnales prompti ex horto a 3, 4 vocibus and the Messe concertate für vier und fünf Stimmen, both of which had a moderate success. Other works survive as well.

editions

Flores hyemnales prompti ex horto a 3, 4 vocibus, cum 2 violinis, mottetis, missis, sonatis & vesperis op. 4 (Konstanz: apud Ioannem Geng, sumptibus Christiani Lommer, 1666). Accessible via Gallica and via url http://openmusiclibrary.org/score/5fb7ef39-0878-4405-9830-38bca4bc5a28/

Messe concertate für vier und fünf Stimmen mit Instrumentalbegleitung (Innsbruck 1666).

Barockmusik aus Schweizer Franziskanerklöstern. Werke von Barthold Hipp, Felician Suevus Schwab, Constantin Steingaden. Ensemble Musicalin (www.arsmusica.ch/musicalina-musicalina@arsmusica.ch), Compact Disc M&S 5047/2 (Bern: Müller & Schade AG, 2007); Missa „Viva Mörspurg“ und eine Sonata a 5, interpretiert von den Ensembles cantus et musica freiburg und Parnassi musici, Dirigent: Raimund Hug, on: CD Konstanzer Kathedralmusik des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts (Spektral (SRL4-09062), 2009).

literature

Walter Vogt, Die Messe in der Schweiz im 17. Jahrhundert (Schwarzenburg: Buchdruckerei H. Gerber, 1940), passim; Renate Hübner-Hinderling, 'P. Constantin Steingaden. Ein süddeutscher Komponist des Franziskanerordens', Franziskanische Studien 63 (1981), 257–270; Paul Zinsmaier, 'Die Kapellmeister am Konstanzer Münster von 1555 bis 1800, Freiburger Diözesan-Archiv 101 (1981), 66–139.

 

 

 

 

Cornelius Thielmans>> (fl. early 17th cent.)

Dutch friar. Guardian of the Den Bosch (s'Hertogenbosch) friary in the early seventeenth century. Compilatory hagiographer.

editions

Corte Legende der Heyhghen van S. Franciscus Oorden met haer Figuren, Aflaet van Portiunckel, ende Miraculeuse staninge van S. Franciscus Lichaem. By een vergadert Door Broeder Cornelis Thielmas Guardiaen der Minderbroederen binnen t'Shertogenhosch (...) Met gratie ende Priuilegie (s'Hertogenbosch: Ian Scheffer, 1606).

Cort Verhael van het Leven der Heijlighen van S. Franciscus Oirden Met Haer Levende Figuren Wt Diuersche schyvers genomen Deur Den E. P. Broeder Cornelius Thielmans Guardiaen vander Minderbroederen binnen Tshartogenbosch(...) met gratie ende Priuilegie ('s Hertogenhosch: Jan Scheffers, 1606). This work is nearly identical with the Corte Legende. See on the relationship of these two works and the connection between Thielmans and contemporary devotional authors the article of Anna E.C. Simoni mentioned below.

 literature

Anna E.C. Simoni, 'The Book of Franciscan Saints by Corneliys Thielmans, 1610: A Question of Title' [accessible via url www.bl.uk/eblj/1984articles/pdf/article11.pdf]; Nationaal Biografisch Woordenboek 13 (Brussels, 1990), 771-775; Franciscana, 45 (1990), 75-76.

 

 

 

 

Cosmus de Castelfranco (Padre Cosimo Cappuccino/Cosmo da Castelfranco/Paolo Piazza, d. 1620)

OFMCap. Italian friar, author and painter. Born as Paolo Piazza in Castelfranco Veneto in 1560. Was formed as a painter in Venice between 1575 and the early 1580s, possibly in the workshops of Palma il Giovane, Paolo Veronese and Bassiano. After his return to his home town he produced a number of frescoes in the duomo of Castelfranco and elsewhere. Between 1594 and 1596, he was again active in Venice and surroundings, producing for instance paintings in the oratorium of the Santissima Trinità of Chioggia. He joined the Capuchins on 27 September 1598, adopting the name Cosimo da Castelfranco. He continued to paint, until shortly before his death. For more information see especially the entry in the Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani mentioned below.

literature

Gabriello Milantoni, 'Cosimo da Castelfranco', Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani 30 (1984) [http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/cosimo-da-castelfranco_(Dizionario-Biografico)/ ]; Paolo Piazza. Pittore cappuccino nell’età della Controriforma tra conventi e corti d’Europa, ed. Sergio Marinelli &Angelo Mazza (Verona-Novara: Banco Popolare di Verona e Novara, 2002).

 

 

 

 

Cosmus de Castelfranco II (Cosmo Pettenari, 1647-1715)

OFMCap. Italian friar. Author

editions

Cosmo da Castelfranco, Vita di Marco’d’Aviano, frate cappuccino, e Appunti di Viaggi, ed. & trans. Mary Cusin Frattin & Paolo Miotto, saggi introduttivi Giacinto Cecchetto & Paolo Miotto (Castelfranco Veneto: Parochia del Duomo, 2005) [review in CF 75 (2005), 760-766].

literature

Un castellano in Europa. Padre Cosmo da Castelfranco, cappuccino (1647-1715) compagno e biografo del Beato Marco d’Aviano. Atti del Convegno di studi (Castelfranco Veneto: Parroccchia del Duomo, 2005), 51-68; Vincenzo Criscuolo, 'Cosmo da Castelfranco. Valore dell’opera edita nel quadro della biografia sul Beato Marco d’Aviano e della storiografia sui cappuccini veneti’, in: Un castellano in Europa. Padre Cosmo da Castelfranco, cappuccino (1647-1715) compagno e biografo del Beato Marco d’Aviano. Atti del Convegno di studi (Castelfranco Veneto: Parroccchia del Duomo, 2005), 13-23; Paolo Miotto, ‘Padre Cosmo Pettenari (1647-1715): un Castellano per l’Europa’, in: Un castellano in Europa. Padre Cosmo da Castelfranco, cappuccino (1647-1715) compagno e biografo del Beato Marco d’Aviano. Atti del Convegno di studi (Castelfranco Veneto: Parroccchia del Duomo, 2005), 25-49.

 

 

 

 

Cosmus Ramírez (fl. c. 1760)

OFM. Member of the Andalusia province.

literature

AIA 21 (1924), 339-340; AIA 15 (1955), 407; Manuel de Castro, Bibliografía de las bibliografias franciscanas españolas e hispanoamericanas, Publicaciones de Archivo Ibero-Americano (Madrid: Ed. Cisneros, 1982), 167 (no. 704).

 

 

 

 

Cornelis Adriaensz. Brouwer (Cornelis van Dordrecht, 1521-1581)

Born in Dordrecht in a well-to do family. Studied Greek and Hebrew first under the direction of his father, who after the death of his wife had become priest in the New Church of Dordrecht, and later, from 1537 onwards he studied arts at the University of Louvain, as student of the Standonck College. In march 1540, he became bachelor of arts as third (fourth?) of his class. Thereafter he studied more philosophy and theology, probably in Louvain and was ordained priest. In 1544, he became lector of philosophy at the Standonck college and later moved to Bruges, where Cornelis continued his studies under Georges Cassander (correct?). When the humanist Cassander came under fire for his doctrinal positions and was forced to stop his teaching, Cornelis became in 1546 his successor at the public chair for theology at the school of the Halls (de Hallen) in Bruges. In 1547 or 1548, when he was 27 years old, Cornelis entered the Franciscan order in the Flemish province. After his noviciate, he embarked on a homiletic career, preaching during Lent in Bruges in 1549 (in the church of St. Jacob). In the course of the next three decades, he developed into a (in)famous popular and anti-reformatory preacher in Bruges and neighbouring urban centers. Alongside of this, he wrote the doctrinal works De Seven Sacramenten and Den Spieghel der Thien Gheboden, and he also was lector of his friary (1552-1554) as well as guardian (probably 1557-1560, 1568-1575) and vicar (1560-1563). Sometimes he was asked to interrogate and/or instruct imprisoned heretics. In 1564 he was temporarily forced to leave Bruges (probably staying in Kortrijk and in Ieper, where he might have been guardian as well), after he had offended the urban authorities, and especially the influential pensionaris Gillis Wyts in a conflict over begging rights and support for the poor, measures which in the eyes of Cornelis were detrimental to the mendicants. The urban authorities succeeded in obtaining a preaching ban from Bishop De Corte, which silenced Cornelis for about two years and enticed him to leave town. Yet in 1566 he was again preaching Lenten cycles in Bruges in the St. Salvator church and he had so much success that the clergy lobbied with the town to allow him to continue preaching in town, reservations from the urban authorities notwithstanding. Cornelis relentless vilification of Protestant groups drew out two letter of protest from the parish priest and soon to be Protestant reformer Jan van Casteele (Stephanus Lindius). It also caused the publication of an intricate parodic work, namely the peculiar Historie van B. Cornelis Adriaensen van Dordrecht, Minrebroeder binnen die Stadt van Brugghe (s.l. [Norwhich], 1569). This work, a second volume of which appeared in 1578, has been ascribed to Christianus Neuter, but also to Jan van Casteele en Hubert Goltzius. It not only deals with the friar’s alleged crude and violent preaching against Anabaptists, Lutherans and Calvinists (with many parodic ‘examples’ of Cornelis’ sermons), but also describes Cornelis’s alleged whipping practices of naked penitent women in confraternities under his control in Bruges (between 1548 and 1563) [exemplar to be found in Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek Albert I, Old prints no. II 76.483 A. An internet edition of this peculiar parody is presented by Johanna Fenyn and Dirk Smout on the internet page http://membres.lycos.fr/secpen/SP1601.htm]. Notwithstanding such attacks, Cornelis kept a good reputation within his order and among the Catholic population. In between lengthy Lent preaching activities (for instance in 1570-1572 in the Church or Our Lady (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekerk) and in 1573-1575 in the St. Salvator), his guardian obligations in Bruges between 1568 and 1575, he became assistant inquisitor. Shortly after the urban authorities had once again silenced Cornelis for his relentless attacks on their government, Bruges was taken on 26 March 1578 by the Gueux (forces fighting for the Protestant rebels in The Netherlands), who remained in control of the town until 1584. Cornelis went into hiding. Three of his fellow friars were burned alive for sodomy and in 1579, the Franciscan friary was demolished. Cornelis apparently was never taken prisoner, even though he received Calvinist visitors such as Filips van Marnix van Sint-Aldegonde, at his hiding place (first the residence of the merchant Johannes Joens and later the house of the textile merchant Otto Arremare). He died while in hiding on 14 July 1581 and was buried in the Saint John’s hospital. In May 1615, he was reburied (after his body had been found ‘intact’) near the main altar of the new Franciscan church.

editions

De Seven Sacramenten uytgheleyt ende openbaerlijck te Brugghe ghepreeckt by Br. Cornelis van Dordrecht Minderbroeder, nu ter tijt Lesere binnen den Convente aldaer (Antwerp: Gilles van Diest for Jan Verbuere, 1556). A reworking of his sermons held at Bruges. The work is dedicated to the urban authorities of Bruges.

De Speghel der thien gheboden, huutgeleyt bij B. Cornelis van Dordrecht (Bruges: Corijn van Belle for Jan Verbuere, 1554).

Epistola Apologetica>> (reaction to letters by Jan van Casteele (Stephanus Lindius)). It is unknown whether this letter has survived.

early editions of the Calvinist parodies of his works

Hubertus Goltzius (?), Historie van B. Cornelis Adriaensen van Dordrecht, Minrebroeder binnen die Stadt van Brugghe. Inde welcke warachtelick verhaelt wert, de Discipline ende secrete penitencie of geesselinge, die hy ghebruycte met zijn Devotarigen: de welcke veroorsaect hebben zeer veel wonderlicke Sermoenen, die hy te Brugge gepredict heeft, teghen den Magistraet aldaer, ende teghen die vier Leden des Lants van Vlaenderen: Item tegen het vergaderen vande Generale staten, ende tegen die tsamen gheconfederierde Edel lieden: met noch veel andere gruwelicke blasphemien teghen Godt ende de natuere: Oock veel bloetdorstighe Sermoenen tegen de Calvinisten, Lutherianen ende Doopers, vol leelicke leugenen ende abominabile woorden. Inhoudende ooc twee vermaen brieven van Stephanus Lindius, anden selven B. Cornelis in Latine gesonden, ende nu overgheset in Nederlants: met noch sommighe Pasquillen ende Refereynen tusschen de Sermoenen begrepen (Norwich: Anthonis de Solempne, 1569).

Justus van Vredendael [pseudonyum], Het tweede boeck vande sermoenen des wel vermaerden Predicants B. Cornelis Adriaenssen van Dordrecht, Minrebroeder tot Brugghe. Waervan d’inhouden begrepen staet int navolgende bladt (...) Inde welcke waerachtelijc verhaelt werden zeer veel wonderlijcke Sermoonen, die hy te Brugge gepredict heeft teghen den Magistraet aldaer, ende teghen die vier Leden des Lants van Vlaenderen. Item tegen sommighe gevluchte Princen, Graven, Heeren ende Edellieden, ter cause vande troublen om de Religie. Oock veel bloetdorstighe Sermoonen teghen de Calvinisten, Lutherianen, Doopers, Erasmianen, etc. Vol grouwelijcke blasphemien teghen Godt ende de natuere, ende vol leelijcke leughenen ende abominable woorden. Inhoudende ooc twee Disputatien tusschen hem ende twee Doopers. Met noch sommighe Refereynen ende Pasquillen op hem, ende op zijn Devotarighen gedicht, tusschen de Sermoenen begrepen (Bruges, 1578).

literature

Th.J.I. Arnold, ‘Broeder Cornelis Adriaensz. van Dordrecht. Een pleidooi‘, Dietsche Warande, n.r. 2 (1879), 117-170, 256-387, 422-453, 555-575; S. Dirks, Histoire littéraire et bibliographique des frères mineurs de l’Observance en Belgique et dans les Pays-Bas (Antwerp, 1885), 104-112; Goethals, ‘Témoignages inédits sur Fr. Corneille Adriaensz.’, Bulletin du Cercle historique et archéologique de Courtrai 1:2 (1902) [cf. Archives belges 192 (Liège, 1903), 177]; A.C. de Schrevel: ‘Br. Cornelis Adriaensz. van Dordrecht, zijn leven - zijn preeken, 1521-1581’, Historisch Tijdschrift 4 (1925), 217-258; Kruitwagen, Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek IV, 452-458; Schmitz, Het aandeel der minderbroeders109-110; De Troeyer Bio-bibliographica (saec.XVI) I, 267-278 (also with an analysis of the satyrical tradition); Karel J.S. Bostoen, ‘Broer Cornelis en zijn historie: een politieke satire’, Literatuur 1 (1984), p. 254-261; Karel Bostoen, ‘Realisme in de Historie van Broer Cornelis’, Secrete Penitentie. Bijdragen tot de geschiedenis der Nederlandse satyre 12 (1993), 5-6; Karel J.S. Bostoen, ‘De ontkenning van de satire in de christelijke literatuurbeschouwing, of hoe de historie van B. Cornelis in de negentiende eeuw de reputaties van geleerden knakte’, Secrete Penitentie, 14 (1995), 1-11; Karel Bostoen, ‘De oudste verwijzing naar de geselpraktijken van broeder Cornelis’, Secrete Penitentie. Bijdragen tot de geschiedenis der Nederlandse satyre 16 (1997), 3-19. Also to be found on: http://membres.lycos.fr/secpen/SP1601.htm; Karel Bostoen, ‘Reformation, Counter-Reformation and literary propaganda in the Low Countries in the sixteenth century: the case of Brother Cornelis’, in: The Education of a Christian Society. Humanism and the Reformation in Britain and the Netherlands, Papers delivered to the Thirteenth Anglo-Dutch Historical Conference, ed. N. Scott Amos, A. Pettegree & H. van Nierop (Ashgate, 1999), 164-192; Karel Bostoen & Daniel Horst, ‘De wolf onder de schapen, Afbeeldingen van Broer Cornelis’, in: Tweelinge eener dragt, Woord en beeld in de Nederlanden (1500-1750), ed. Karel Bostoen, Elmer Kolfin & Paul J. Smith (Hilversum: Verloren, 2001), 41-74; Historie van B. Cornelis Adriaensen van Dordrecht, Minrebroeder binnen die Stadt van Brugghe, diplomatische tekstuitgave in de Digitale bibliotheek voor de Nederlandse letteren, 2003, ed. Wim Voortman (www.dbnl.nl); Johan Decavele, ‘Het waarheidsgehalte in de preken van Broeder Cornelis van Dordrecht in Brugge (1566-1574), 2 Delen’, Handelingen van het genootschap voor geschiedenis in Brugge (2011), 1-44 & (2012), 363-400. [It is interesting that Dutch scholars have always been much more interested in the Protestant satyre on Cornelis than in the actual person and his own works]; Bert Roest, ‘Franciscan Religious Instruction in the Low Countries, c. 1520-1560’, Ons Geestelijk Erf 85: 4 (2014), 292-310 (passim).

 

 

 

 

Cornelius Raven van Naarden (Cornelis Raven, d. after 1548)

OFMObs from Naarden. Vicarius in the friary of the Friars Minor in Amsterdam in 1525. Became (in)famous for his sermons against the reformation, which he held in Amsteram until 1534. Besides, he was a productive ascetical author. His anti-reformatory sermons and his attemps to cajole the Habsburg government in Brussels into action against Lutheran books made him a target of Protestant calumny and to this purpose wrote to the Margaret of Austria's counselor Joannes Carondolet (titular Bishop of Palermo), and he figures negatively in plays of the Rhetoric Chamber (Rederijkerskamer) In Liefde Bloeyende, such as Een spul van sinnen van den siecke stadt from 1536, which fulminates against the persecution of Anabaptists and other heretics. [although he should not be confused with the younger Cornelis of Dordrecht OFM, who became the topic of Protestant satyrical works].

manuscripts

Der Minnengaerdt: MS Antwerp, Museum Plantijn-Moretus 8-334 ff. 1-65v.

O Minnende ziel: Museum Plantijn-Moretus 8-334 ff. 65v [poem]

Sermoen niemant en mach twee heeren dienen: Museum Plantijn-Moretus 8-334 ff. 66r-99r; MS Gent, University Library Acc. 1353 ff. 5r-47r [amounts to a treatise on divine grace and its workings]

Een exempel van een goede maghet Machtelt hielt: Museum Plantijn-Moretus 8-334 ff. 99v-100r.

Een schon suverlick ghebet: Museum Plantijn-Moretus 8-334 ff. 100r-101v.

Een corte oefeninghe om te comen tot die liefde gods: Gent, University Library Acc. 1353 ff. 1r-4r

Van een vrouken van XXIJ jaren: Gent, University Library Acc. 1353 ff. 47v-51r [deals with a woman who surprises theologians with her deep inner life, and religious wisdom]

In die verissenisse sullen wij wesen als enghelen, mathei xxij, 30: Gent, University Library Acc. 1353 ff. 51v-66r. [Elaborates the hierarchy of the beatified, which resembles the hierarchy of the nine choirs of angels. The highest place in heaven is for the contemplative people, the middle place for prelates and rulers, the lowest place for beginning and working believers.]

Die den menschen leert sonder mont: Gent, University Library Acc. 1353 ff. 67r-71r. [Amounts to a letter to a persoon who has asked for spiritual guidance. Letter gives advice for a proper inner life, confession and the daily examination of one’s conscience. It also gives reading advice: ‘van deze ende deser ghelijke saken hebt ghy in paerle ende in dat spieghel der volcomenheit ende in anderen veel boecken.’]

editions

Een seer schoen devoet Boecxken gheheten der Minnengaerdt, daer ons in verclaert wert, die warachtighe duecht des Charitaets oft der Liefden, wiens kennisse allen kersten menschen van noede is te weten, op dat hy by valsche liefde niet bedroghen en werde, overmits datmen sonder die Charitaet ofte liefden niet salich en mach werden (Amsterdam: Willem Jacobszoon, 1548/Amsterdam: Willem Jacobszoon, ca. 1549). Accessible via Google Books. [This work describes in eight chapters the three steps of spiritual life, each of which is founded on divine love (charitas), represented as a tree that has to be planted, cared for, and the fruits of which can be harvested. The prologue of the work therefore says: ‘Ende wy zijn ghegaen inden boomgaert des warachtigen Salomons, ende hebben daer uut ghehaelt desen eedelen noetdruftighen boem des Charitaets, tot prophijt van allen ghelovighen menschen, beyde gheestelijck ende waerlijck daer si of plucken moeghen die vruchten des salicheyts, met hulpe der gracien Gods. Ende op dat si dit wel ende gherechtelijck sullen doen met alder bequamheyt, soe is haer hier beduyt die warachtige Charitaet, beyde by figuer ende schriftuer. Ende om dit wel te verstaen soe is dit boecxken ghedeelt in drie deelen. Inden eersten deel wert verclaert hoe dat hem een mensche tot deser Charitaet bereyden sal. Ende hoe dat men desen Boem planten sal. Ende dit gaet an die beghinnende menschen. Inden tweeden deel des boecx wert verclaert hoe hem een mensche onder desen boem gheneren sal ende wat desen Boem is. End dit gaet aen die voertgaende menschen. Inden derden deel des boecxs wert verclaert die graden telgen ende vruchten des boems, ende hoe datmen die op climmen sal, om die vruchten te plucken. Ende dit gaet aen die volmaecte menschen.’]

literature

W. Lampen, ‘Franciscaanse handschriften in Nederland’, Bijdragen voor de Geschiedenis van de Provincie der Minderbroeders in de Nederlanden 21 (1955), 421; B. de Troeyer, ‘Cornelis Raven van Naarden’, Franciscana 19 (1964), 1-12; B. de Troeyer, Bio-Bibliographia Franciscana Neerlandica Saeculi XVI I: Pars Biographica (Nieuwkoop, 1969), 180-187.

 

 

 

 

Crabbe, Petrus, OFMObs (1470/71-1553, Mechelen)

Friar from Malines (Mechelen) Studied theology in Louvain in and after 1489/90 (according to the old style matriculated on 28 February 1489, in the pedagogium De Valk), and joined the Observants before 1504. Lector and librarian in the Franciscan friary of Malines/Mechelen. Later also guardian, there and elsewhere, and confessor of the Poor Clares of Mechelen/Malines. Became an important editor of church council documents. After a search through almost 500 libraries, on which he embarked in and after 1532 at the request of the Popes Leo X and Clement VII, partly in collaboration with the clergyman Jan Heytmer from Zonhoven, the leader of the papal committee put together for this purpose, Crabbe published his Concilia Omnia, tam generalia quam particularia, in fact the first real scholarly edition of these church documents. It was widely used before the new collection of Mansi came out. Petrus Crabbe died in Mechelen/Malines in 1553 or 1554. Crabbe apparently also worked on a bibliography of published works of classical writers, and he corresponded on this topic with the humanist Viglius ab Aytta. This was either never published and the manuscript version apparently has not survived.

editions and sources

Petrus Crabbe, Concilia Omnia tam Generalia quam Particularia ab Apostolorum Temporibus in Hunc usque Diem a SS. Patribus Celebrata et Quorum Acta Literis Mandata ex Vetustissimis Diversorum Regionum Bibliothecis Haberi Potuere, 2 Vols (Cologne: Petrus Quentel, 1538); revised in 3 vols (Cologne: Joannes Quentel, 1551) [including a provisional account of the early history and decisions of the Council of Trent]; revised in 4 vols, ed. Surius (Cologne, 1567). The author included biographies of the popes the bulls and letters of whom he included. Crabbe's collection of Councils and council decisions was avidly used by Catholics and Protestants alike. Several old editions of this work now accessible via the digital collections of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek and via Google Books.

Epistola ad Fridericum Nauseam (12 August, 1536), included in: Epistolarum miscellanearum ad Fridericum Nauseam (...) libri X (Basel: Joannes Oporinus, 1550), f. Z2r [179].

Some scholars also ascribe to Petrus Crabbe the imprint/edition of a twelfth-century sermon on the immaculate conception of Mary, supposedly written by Peter Comestor. See: Pius ac eruditus sermo Petri Comestoris, olim prebyteri Trecensis, de immaculata Virginis Mariae Conceptione (Antwerp: Willem Vorsterman, 1536). The work was later included in Petrus de Alva y Astorga's Radii solis (...) pro immaculatae conceptionis mysterio (1666).

literature

C. Chaillot, `Les principales collections des conciles. Editions de Crabbe', Revue du monde catholique 16 (>>), 241-347; Dom H. Quentin, J.D. Mansi et les grandes collections conciliaires (Paris, 1900); D. Franses, `Petrus Crabbe en zijn Conciliorum Collectio', Collectanea Franciscana Neerlandica 2 (1931), 427-446; W. Schmitz, Het aandeel der minderbroeders, 100-101; B. De Troeyer, `Petrus Crabbe', Franciscana 17 (1962), 105-110; B. De Troeyer, Bio-Bibliographica Franciscana Neerlandica saec. XVI, I: Pars biographica (Nieuwkoop: B. De Graaf, 1969), 137-138, 163ff.; H.J. Sieben, Die katholische Konzilsidee von der Reformation bis zur Aufklärung (Paderborn, 1988), 226ff.; LThK 3rd ed. II, 1336;

 

 

 

 

 

Cratepolius, Petrus (Mersius, Merssaeus, Opmersensis, c. 1540-1605, Cologne)

OFMConv. Bacc. theologiae. Author of church histories and hagiographical works.

editions and sources

Electorum Ecclesiasticorum, id est Coloniensium, Moguntinensium ac Trevirensium... Catalogus (cologne, 1580); De Germaniae Episcopis et orthodoxis Doctoribus (...) et ubi sacra eorum Corpora Conseruentur. Praeterea De schismaticis et pseudo-doctoribus (...) (Cologne: Godefridus Kempen, 1592). There are also other, partial editions. The 1598 edition is accessible via Google Books.

Catalogus Omnium Archiepiscoporum et Episcoporum (Cologne, 1597);

Epitome Concionum Ludovici Granatae (Cologne, 1591)

Historia Martyrum Gorcomiensium (Cologne, 1580)

Compendium Catechismi Catholicorum (Cologne, 1592/Lyon, 1592)

Catalogus Academiarum Orbis Christiani (Cologne, 1593)

De Resurrectione Corporum et Animae Immortalitate (cologne, 1598)

literature

Sbar., Suppl, >>; P. Polman, L'élément historique dans la controverse religieuse du xvie siècle (Gembloux, 1932), 435f, 508.; Éd. D'Alençon, DThC, 3, 2033f; LThK, 2, 1338.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crescentius Grizi (Jesi) (d. 1263)

Studied medicine and Canon Law before his entrance in the order. Became provincial minister in the Marches of Ancona, where he took measures against spirituals or kindled spirits. Became minister general in 1244. He initiated the search for materials on the life of Francis on the basis of which Celano II was written. Also initiator of the Dialogus Sanctorum Fratrum Minorum (the actual authorship of which has been ascribed toThomas of Pavia). Did not feel qualified enough to participate in the council of Lyons in 1245 and the general chapter of 1247, and was deposed. His election to the episcopal see of Assisi was not confirmed by pope Innocent IV.

manuscripts

>>

sources & literature

AF, I, 244; III, 261-269; Salimbene, Cronica, MGH, SS, 32, 176; L. Lemmens, Fragmenta Franciscana, I (Rome, 1902); Nos qui cum eo fuimus, ed. P. Manselli (Rome, 1980); LMA, 3, 345; LThK, 2, 1346; DHGE XXII, 305-307.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crescentius Krisper (c.1679-1749)

OFMRif. Austrian friar and Scotist theologian. Active as a lector in several Austrian colleges and as a general commissionar for the OFMRif (1730). Set out to refute Carthesianism with Aristotelian & Scotist logic and philosophy, criticising contemporary Scotists and Thomists in the process. He died in 1749.

editions

Theologia Scholae Scoticae Universa, 4 Vols. (Augsburg: Sumptibus Matthiae Wolff, 1728-1729/Reprint Augsburg: Sumptibus Josephi Wolff, 1748). For instance accessible via the Post-Reformation Digital Library [http://www.prdl.org/author_view.php?a_id=4449]

Philosophia Scholae Scotistiae seu solida expositio librorum tum logicalium, tum physicorum, et metaphysicorum Scoti Doctoris Subtilis (Augsburg: Sumptibus Matthiae Wolff, 1735).

Nubila Iansenismi & Quesnellianismi Luce Dogmatico-Scholastica Dispulsa: In duas partes divisa, 2 Vols. (Augsburg: Sumptibus Matthiae Wolff, 1726). For instance accessible via the Post-Reformation Digital Library [http://www.prdl.org/author_view.php?a_id=4449]

literature 

Jerzy Duchniewski, ‘Krisper Crescentius’, Encyklopedia Katolicka IX, 1298; Lukas Novak, ‘The(Non-)Reception of Scotus’s Proof of God’s Existence by the Baroque Scotists’, Quaestio 8 (2008), 323-344 (esp. 341-343); Claus A. Andersen, Claus A, ‘‘Metaphysica secundum ethymon nominis dicitur scientia transcendens’. On the Etymology of ‘Metaphysica’ in the Scotist Tradition’, Medioevo 34 (2009), 61-104 (85).

 

 

 

 

Crispinus of Viterbo (Pietro Fioretti), (1668, Viterbo-1750, Rome), sanctus (1982)

Lay friar, took care of the sick , active as cook, gardiner and mendicant. Devoted to poetry (Tasso)

editions and sources

Massime e preghiere, (Rome, 1953), Letters: L'Italia Francescana, 57 (1982), 312-342

literature

BiblSS, 4, 312f.; I. Lehmann, Crispin von Viterbo (Leutesdorf, 1982); M. d'Alatri, Aforismi e lettere di s. C. da Viterbo, Riv. di Vita Spirituale, 37 (1983), 314-323; E. Bronzetti, `Le fonti della spiritualità di s. C. da Viterbo', L'Italia Francescana, 58 (1983), 227-254; Mariano D’Alatri, ‘Saint Crispin de Viterbe. La joie franciscaine’, in: Visages de saints et bienheureux capucins, 259-286; Giovanni Cesarini, ‘Il perché di una ricerca su san Crispino da Viterbo [cap. D. 1750]’, Biblioteca e Società 27:4 (Viterbo, 2008), 3; Rinaldo Cordovani, ‘Crispino da Viterbo. Cenni biografici. Pietro Fioretti, Viterbo, 13 novembre 1668. Roma, 19 maggio 1750’, Biblioteca e Società 27:4 (Viterbo, 2008), 4-11 [see also other short articles and notices on San Crispino da Viterbo in this journal issue].

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cyprianus Gnesotti (Cipriano Gnesotti, d. 1796)

OFMCap from Storo. Born as Rocco Romagnoli Gnesotti on March 25, 1717, as the son of Simone and Maria Romagnoli. Went to school with the Capuchins of Brescia from 1733 onwards, and made his religious profession on 29 September 1734, adopting the name Cipriano. Active as preacher and priest in the Brescia and Trentino region. Known for his Lenten preaching cycles in Castrezzato (1752), Bovegno (1753) and Vestone (1756). When the Venetian Doge Alvise Mocenigo ordered all religious people to return to the region of their birth, Cipriano went in 1769 to the Condino friary. Later, in 1772, he was active in Trento, in 1773 in Rovereto, and in 1774 in Mantua. He then returned to Condino, where he died. Cipriano had well-developed historical interests and corresponded with a number of historical erudites, including Ludivico Antonio Muratori.

See for his life and works also: https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cipriano_Gnesotti

manuscripts/editions

Memorie per servire alla storia delle Giudicarie disposte secondo l'ordine dei tempi, con una breve appendice delle iscrizioni (Giovanni Battista Monauni, 1786). A reprint was issued in 1973 by the Consorzio dei Comuni del Bacino Imbrifero Montan del Chiese.

L'opera sulla vita di san Vigilio (1788/1792). This work exists in three different redactions by the author, of very unequal length, and with different full title. It was never printed during Cipriano's lifetime and after a fire in the Capuchin friary of Trento, it was thought to be lost. Yet a version was recovered (which?) and edited by Franco Bianchini and published in by the Consorzio dei Comuni del Bacino Imbrifero Montan del Chiese, in 1980.

Il cronologio del Convento di Condino..., ed. Franco Bianchini (Consorzio dei Comuni del Bacino Imbrifero Montan del Chiese, 1980). The autograph manuscript of this work was lost more than once in the twentieth century, and was more or less recovered by accident in 1979.

literature

Giuliana Zomer, ‘Tre manoscritti autografi di p. Cipriano Gnesotti’, I Quattro Vicariati 50:59 (2006), 91-97.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cyrillus Alamedo (Cirilo Alamedo y Brea, 1781-1872)

OFM. Worked as a missionary priest in Uruguay and in Brazil. Minister general between 1817 and 1823. Elected archbishop of Santiago de Cuba in 1831. Also active as counselor of the Spanish crown. Made archbishop of Burgos in 1849 and of Toledo in 1857. Made Cardinal in 1857 by Pius IX. Died at the age of 90 in 1872.

literature

Cirilo Alameda y Brea, O.F.M. (1781-1872), Ministro General, Arzobispo y Cardenal (1971); Carlos Miguelsanz Garzón, ‘Fray Cirilo Alameda y Brea en Uruguay y Brasil. Los proyectos de la Infanta Carlotta Joaquina’, in: El franciscanismo en la Península Ibérica. Balance y perspectivas. I Congreso Internacional Madrid, 22-27 de septiembre de 2003, ed. María del Mar Graña Cid & Agustín Boadas Llavat (Alméria, GBG Editora-Barcelona, Asociación Hispánia de Estudios Franciscanos, 2005), 789-801.

 

 

 

 

 

Cyprianus de Gamaches (c. 1599-1679)

OFMCap. Important spiritual author…

editions

Exercices d'une âme royale dans le saint emploi du jour (Paris: J. du Bray, 1658).

Exercices d'une âme royale, ou les Devoirs les plus importants du chrétien (Paris: Impr. Royale, 1655).

Mémoires de la Mission des capucins de la Province de Paris près la Reine d'Angleterre, depuis 1630 jusqu'à 1669, ed. Apollinaire de Valence (Paris: Poussielgue, 1881). This work was translated into English as: Memoirs of the mission in England of the capuchin friars of the province of Paris from the year 1630 to 1669, in: The Court and Times of Charles the First, 2 Vols. (London, 1848), Vol. II.

La Vie et la mort chrétienne, ou les Moyens familiers de bien vivre et de bien mourir (Paris: S. Cramoisy, 1678 [=2nd. Ed.]).

literature

Wadding, Scriptores, 221; Bernardo di Bologna, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Ordinis Minorum Capuccinorum (Venice, 1747), 69; Rocco da Cesinale, Storia delle missioni dei cappuccioni (Paris-Rome, 1867-1873) I, 168, 397 & II, 401, 404, 427, 432, 441-446; Ubald d’Alençon, ‘L’aumônerie de la reine Henriette’, Études franciscaines 9 (1903), 15-26; DThCat III, 2474-2475; DSpir II, 669; LexCap, 487; Catholicisme III, 403; DHGE XIX, 955.